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Full text of ""A show at" sho' cards; comprehensive, complete, concise"


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Publishers' Note 

N THE last pages of this 
volume you will find the 
names and addresses of 
the largest and most 
reputable manufacturers 
in the United States in the different 
branches of supplies for Sign 
Painters and Show Card Writers. 
As publishers of this volume, WE 
GUARANTEE any orders sent 
them will be promptly executed, at 
their reasonable, low prices. 
Yours fraternally 
Frederick J. Drake & Co. 



PRESIDENT 




•I* 'i" 



4* 

m 




COMPREHENSIVE 
^ COMPLETE Jf 

Vconcise/ 

FJH. ^Atkinson: 




PUBLISHERS 

FREDERICK J. DRAKE & CO. 

CHICAGO, U. S. A. 



CoPYKKiHT 


1912 


BY 




FREPERICK J 


DRAKE. 



)C!. A 3:} 0318 



PREFACE 

^ A modern treatise on card writing with the sole intent of 

i presenting in a clear and concise form all that can be desired in 

) the way of practical method execution and design, relative to the 

i art as applied and practiced in every-day work in show card 

shops or studios, and department stores. 

Between the covers of this work will be found a series of 
instructions written and illustrated in a manner which will enable 
anyone of average intelligence to acquire a thorough working 
knowledge of this interesting, agreeable and lucrative profession. 
There is much in the work that has been gleaned from con- 
temporaneous talent for the very good reason that a work of this 
kind to be complete and broad should be contemporaneous, giving 
expression to the methods most in vogue with present day experts 
and also a strong showing of contemporaneous design. 

All art is subject to never ending development and it would 
be impossible to anticipate all contingencies or compile between 
the covers of any book however large all that might be said upon 
this or any kindred subject; however, it is believed that the prac- 
tical phases of the art have been thoroughly covered, so thoroughly 
in fact, that the work is respectfully submitted and dedicated to 
the Show Card Writing Fraternity and those desirous of entering 
the profession. 

FRANK H. ATKINSON. 



SHOW CARD WRITING 

The growth of this branch of the sign painter's profession 
has increased very rapidly within recent years. The demand for 
clever artistic cards can be attributed to the progressiveness of 
the average merchant. 

Card writing in the old days, a decade or more ago, was 
usually supplied by the local sign painter who did not cater to 
the work and very seldom considered it of enough importance to 
install equipment for the rapid and artistic execution of cards. 
A show card order invariably found its way into the "knock-out" 
department and "grovmd" out in a hurry. 

A few there were who had the foresight to depart from sign 
painting and take up show cards as a specialty and they, in turn, 
became the vanguard of present day Show Card Writing, 
incidentally reaping a golden harvest for their pains. 

Following will be found instructions as to use of latest tools, 
brushes, materials and methods used in modern show card 
writing. 

MATERIALS 

With reference to materials, it is suggested that only the best 
are to be considered, especially brushes. All expert letterers will 
be found in possession of the very best tools, the care of them 
almost a religion. 

The card writer is fortunate in needing but few tools and 
materials in the execution of his work. At the start it is not 
necessary to equip with all the various things required to produce 
unique and odd effects. The following list will suffice and includes 
everything essential for ordinary work : 

One No. 4 red sable rigger, one No. 6 red sable rigger, one 
No. 10 red sable rigger, one No. 12 red sable rigger. 

One-half dozen, assorted 1 to 6, Russia sable brushes. 

Marking pens, Nos. 1 and 3; shading pens, Nos. 1, 4 and 5. 

One No. 8 flat show card brush, one No. 10 flat show card 
brush, one No. 12 flat show card brush. 

One bottle black shading ink; one bottle red shading ink; 
one ounce usual gold bronze; one ounce striping gold bronze; 
one box white school crayons; one box artists' charcoal; one pair 
large shears; one sponge (rubber), one straight edge; one 
T-square; one wooden pencil compass; one jar Monogram fresco 



2 SHOW CARD WRITING 

color, black; one jar Monogram fresco color, flake white; one jar 
Monogram fresco color, ultramarine blue; one jar Monogram 
fresco color, deep Turkey red; one jar Monogram fresco color, 
light Turkey red; one jar Monogram fresco color, medium chr. 
yellow; one jar Monogram fresco color, light chr. yellow; two 
Soennecken jiens, Nos. 5 and 6; two stub pens, Nos. 1 and 4; one 
soft lead pencil, H. B. 

The al)ove list of materials will be supplied to you direct b_y 
the pul)lishers of this book at the low price of $7.50 — the equip- 
ment will be found to be first class in every particular. 

Brush Practice 

Do not attempt any lettering with the brush until the 14 
strokes necessar_y in the formation of an_v letter or scroll are fully 
mastei'cd. 

Pigi _. These strokes are shown in Fig. 1, where 

they are combined in the formations I, S, 0, and 
again in their individual form in Fig. 2. Bear 
in mind that constant practice is necessary to 
master these strokes and the control and use of 
the letternig ])rush. Always make a brush stroke continuous. 
Avoid short, "choppy" strokes. Practice will demonstrate that a 
line, either curved or straight, can be drawn much more exact and 





1 z iV'^ 



pleasing with a moderately rapid, stead^y stroke, than when the 
movement is slow and hesitating. 

Always begin a letter liy executing the vertical strokes, the 
left vertical stroke first (finished letters), and the right vertical 
stroke next. Execute the correct formation and proportion of 
the letter first, after which add the spurs or other peculiarities, 
which as a rule do not affect the proportion. 

In Brush Practice 

Note the following: Do not work with a sharjily pointed lu'ush. 
Brush should have a "flat" point like a chisel and kept so by keep- 
ing the hair spread by stroking upon a palette at each recharging 
of the brush. (For flne line short stripe, the brush can be turned 
edgewise of the flat ]ioint and the line drawn rapidly with the 



THE SINGLE STROKE METHOD 3 

bare tip or extreme point.) Wlieii joining two brush strokes do 
not resume at the stopping point of preceding stroke, begin a 
short distance back or inside the preceding stroke and gradvi- 
ally work the "pencil" to point of continuance. No matter how 
long a stroke is it should appear as though drawn in one operation. 
The brush should be held between the thumb and forefinger 
fii-mly, but lightly, in much the same position as a pen or lead 
pencil, not stiff or rigid, but so as to allow the handle of the brush 
to roll between the fingers when necessary, as in the execution of 
a curve. 

Try to maintain a uniform light pressure unless a "swell" is 
desired. In this case, first place "point" to surface at begin- 
ning of stroke, increase pressure gradually until the required 
width of stroke is reached, and then decrease the pressure termi- 
nating the stroke at point of brush. 

(The foregoing paragraph applies only to "single stroke 
script.") Draw lines slowly and continuously at beginning of 
practice. Execute a straight unwavering line on the side that 
represents the "finished edge" of the letter, pay no heed to the 
inner edge of stroke. 

This rule cannot be followed in "one stroke lettering," as 
both sides of the stroke must be uniform and straight. "One 
stroke work" requires an even pressure on the brush constantly 
except in "one stroke script" where the swell occurs. 

Keep V)rush well charged with color to avoid ragged edges. 
If brush is too full of color, or color too thin, it will get beyond 
control. Color must be proper consistency, not thick nor too 
thin. If too thin, it cannot be controlled. If too "thick," it will 
"pull" and refuse to flow freely— resulting in an imperfect line. 
Dipping the brush in the color is not all that is required be- 
fore applving it to the surface. To thoroughly "charge" a brush 
and get "shape" to it after dipping, work it back and forth on 
a palette, turning to right and left several times, after which draw 
it gentlv toward vou on one side, the "side" resting on the palette 
should now be applied to the surface. Charge frequently, never 
work with a "semi-dry" brush (the secret of good execution is a 
fully charged pencil), and eventually acquire the ability to execute 
with light touch, enabling you to execute with point of brush and 
the brush fullv charged. Do not form the habit of "hard pres- 
sure" on a lettering pencil— there is nothing in the heel of the 
brush, it's all in the point. 

THE SINGLE STROKE METHOD 

The term "one stroke" is applied to a letter whose individual 
parts are executed with one stroke of the brush; thus the Egyptian 



4 SHOW CARD WRITING 

letter "K" one stroke, is executed with but three strokes of a 
suitable brush. (Brushes having fine square points and those of 
the "flat" variety, are most suitable for "one stroke work." 
Properly "loaded" and with the proper "touch" a square "start" 
and a square "stop" Avitli uniformity of stroke is the result.) 

The "start" and "stop" of the stroke and its general swing 
determines its claim to character. 

To execute the Egyptian "K" in the finished method requires 
10 distinctive strokes. On card work, oilcloth and muslin signs 
it is highly commendable to use "single stroke" lettering, or upon 
am" sign work of a temporary nature, owing to the rapidity of 
execution. 

Do not confuse the "single stroke" method with carelessly 
executed work. It requires more ability and good expert touch 
to execute a "single stroke" letter than it does to execute a 
"finished" letter for the reason that the mmiber of strokes are 
reduced to a minimum, whereas a "finished" letter is a letter 
correctly formed and executed in every detail with equivalent 
strokes necessary to Ijring this result. 

Letters outside of the "Pen Alphabets," viz.: Lettei*s carry- 
ing thick and thin strokes are not adaptable to the single stroke 
system, excepting heavy script, which readily adapts itself to 
the "single stroke" method by using the "swelling" stroke. 

Those best adai)ted arc the Egyptian, Round Full Block, Mod- 
ern Full Block, Eccentric Block, Tuscan Block and Modern Italic. 

These can all be rapidly formed in "single stroke" minus 
the accurate finish of spurs and minor detail which would class 
them in the finished order. 

As mentioned, the Pen Alphabets, such as "Bradley Text," 
"Old English Modified," "Pen Roman," "Round Writing," etc., 
are readily adapted to rapid one stroke execution. 

Never do an inscription entirely in "one stroke"; execute dis- 
play lines in "finished styles," reserving the "single stroke" let- 
tering for the less important text of the inscription. Following 
this suggestion your work will always have character and "classy" 
appearance. 

On rush work, incident to special events, such as Fairs, Carni- 
vals, Department Store Sales, etc., the opportunity is great for the 
development of designing and letter composition that will come 
under the "single stroke" head and have the appearance of serious 
high grade work. As much Art can be introduced into temporary 
sign display via the rapid stroke route as in the serious conserva- 
tive field of permanent sign painting. 

Cultivate a knowledge of abbreviated ornament, principally 
Rococo, which can be rendered quickly. Odd shaped panels, and 



BOLDNESS OF STKOKE 5 

in fact anything in the way of embellishment which is nncon- 
ventional. 

This snggestion alone gives one nnlimited scope in clevelojp- 
ing originality. 

In order to acquire confidence it is necessary to work as 
rapidly as possible, with a "knowing decision" as to direction and 
formation of stroke. 

BOLDNESS OF STROKE 

And it is well not to work too carefully — ^boldness is the 
slogan of all experts and to hesitate might spell failure in the 
ease of one naturally timid. Faithful practice will eventually 
bring results — do not expect to master brush manipulation with- 
out conscientious, hard, earnest effort. 

THE BRIDGE OR ARM REST 

The "bridge" is made from a strip of pine, 1 inch by 21^ inches 
by 36 inches. Plane it smooth and tack a block at each end 1 inch 
by 21/0 inches by 2^/2 inches, slightly round the top edges and it is 
ready for work. 

The bridge is recommended for the display or feature letter- 
ing on a card which is usually in a "finished" style. Most experts 
do not use the bridge at all; they prefer to rest the "brush hand" 
directly upon the card surface. 

The object of the bridge when used is to give steadiness to 
the hand and increase the latitude of all strokes, raising the hand 
as it does about 2 inches above the card surface. 

POSITION OF THE WORK 

Card writing should l^e executed upon an inclined plane, the 
letterer to work in a standing position. 

The best card bench to be had is the popular "DRAWING 
TABLE" found in all artists' material houses. It is qi;iekly ad- 
justed to any desired plane, and can be raised or lowered. A 
thin piece of moulding strip tacked on bottom edge of table to act 
as a "ledge" will prevent loose cards from sliding off of table. 

SHOW CARD BRUSHES 

The lirush or tool is the most important item of card writing. 

RED SABLE BRUSHES stand in the front rank as the best 
for water color Avork. The brush known as "RED SABLE 
RIGGER" is the most popular card brush. It is "regular stock" 



6 SHOW CARD WRITING 

in all supply houses, and when put into commission the handles 
should be cut to a 6-ineh length. 

Bert L. Daily, Dayton, Ohio, caters exclusively to card writers 
and sign painters in the brush line and has several very fine spe- 
cial brushes that are made to his special order. His catalog will 
enlighten those interested in the special tools designed to meet 
the demands of critical experts who will have only the best. 

CARE OF BRUSHES 

Brushes used for lettering should be religiously cared for. 
Brushes used in water colors should be thoroughly cleansed in 
water and smoothed between the fingers to their natural position 
and laid away carefully. 

Never stand a brush on end, as the weight of the handle will 
so warp the hair that the brush is practically unfit for use. 

Never allow brushes to dry with color in them. 

If several brushes and colors are in use on cards, rinse each 
brusli l^efore laving it down, and in this way save time, temper 
and BRUSHES. 

PEN WORK 

The pens most used in card writing are of several varieties 
and sizes, as follows: 

STUB PENS, RULING PENS, SOENNECKEN PEN, 
SHADING PEN, MARKING PEN. 

All of til CSC ]X'ns can be found and purchased from The New- 
ton Automatic Sliading Pen Co., Pontiac, ^lich. 

The STUB PEN is used for very small lettering on cards and 
price tickets. They can be obtained in many sizes and before use 

Marking Ffen glrokes 

{Till fXT^\^x<^^?^y^ 



should ))e slightly softened hy placing pen in holder and holding 
lighted match to the point 2 or 3 seconds and then QUICKLY 
dipping into water. It is then ready for use in ink or properly 
thinned down color. 

Pens all sizes are adapted especially for the Alphabets, known 
as OLD ENGLISH, Bradley Text, Round Writing and several 
of the modified Roman stvles. 



RULING PENS ^ 

The pen strokes are shown in Fig. 3. It is best to fill or 
charge pens with a brush or pen filler instead of dipping; in this 
way the danger of blotting is reduced to a minimum. 

Practice the PEN STROKES as perseveringly as you have 
the brush strokes. You should be as proficient with the several 
sizes of pens as you are with the brush before anticipating much 
real progress. Upon the mastery of brush and pen will depend 
the success you wish to attain. 

Card pens are not as elastic as the writing pens everyone is 
familiar with, hence they will require more "pressm-e." 

They should be cleaned frequently and kept clean when not 
in actual use. 

RULING PENS 

The Ruling Pen is used exclusively for straight lines of differ- 
ent widths, regulated l)y the thumb screw^ that passes through the 

blades. 

They are very useful for drawing lines on price tickets and 

for underlining purposes. 

Must be filled by passing a brush charged with ink or color 
between the blades, depositing the ink to depth of V^ inch in point 
of pen— the outside of the blade should be kept clean. 

Ruling Pens cannot be used for any free hand pen work; 
must be guided by straight edge or "T" square. 

Any kind of ink, water color or water mixed with bronzes 
may be used in Ruling Pens; if the ink or medium refuses to flow 
from pen, touch point of pen to back of finger. The pen must be 
held in an almost perpendicular position wdien runnmg Imes. 

SOENNECKEN PENS 

Soennecken Pens can be used for every purpose that the 
"stub" pen is used for, particularly adapted to Engrossing Text, 
Round Writing, Old English, etc. 

MARKING PENS 

Marking Pens are to be used in the same manner suggested 
for Soennecken and ' ' stubs. ' ' They are larger in size and adapted 
for full sheet cards and double full sheets, where a larger text 
is used in executing the inscription. 

Fcllowing suggestions cover fully the manipulation of the 
Marking Pen. Fig. 3 shows all the strokes. 

Hold pen same as in ordinary w^riting, being careful to estab- 
lish a position that will give point a 45 degree angle when placed 



8 SHOW CARD WRITING 

upon the paper; once established this position must be maintained 
throughout the whole inscription devoted to pen execution. 

The whole width of the pen should at all times rest evenly 
upon the card surface, regardless of the direction of stroke. 

All fine lines are rendered by sliding pen edgewise, the gradu- 
ated "faces" of other strokes are created automatically by j^res- 
sure. Continued practice will demonstrate this. 

Practice the strokes and after mastery you will find that a 
proper combination of these strokes will form any of the styles 
known as PEN LETTERS and previously suggested. 

SHADING PENS 

These pens are so-called for the very pleasing feature of the 
"double-value" stroke; i. e., one stroke of the pen makes two dis- 
tinct shades or color values. The lighter color value that flows 
from the left side of the pen is known as the shade or thickness, 
the deeper color value is known as the main stroke or "body" of 
the letter. 

SHOW CARD COLORS 

MONOGRAM FRESCO COLORS (Geo. E. Watson Co., Chi- 
cago) are the colors most suitable for card work. They are rapid 
and have the advantage of being previously ground in water to a 
suitable degree of fineness. The adhesive or binding quality must 
be added when a color is to be used. 

Japan and oil colors can be used successfully in lettering cards 
and are often used in sign shops where the volume of card work is 
so small as to render it impracticable to carry a water color 
equipment. 

Also bear in mind that card signs exposed to the elements 
should alwavs lie executed in Japan colors, or water colors mixed 
with LIQUID GLASS. 

Liquid Glass can be obtained at the nearby drug store and 
works with water color quite agreeably. 

DRY COLORS 

Most of the dry colors can be gromid in water, either in small 
druggist's mortar or upon marble or ground glass slab, using 
glass muller or large palette knife or spatula, after which add 
adhesive enough to bind the color sufficiently to prevent same 
from "rubbing up" after the color is dry. 

ADHESIVE FOR WATER COLORS 

Obtain a pound of DEXTRIN at drug store; dissolve in boil- 
ing water say 1 quart; dissolve as nuicli as the water will take up; 



ANOTHER GOOD ADHESIVE 9 

stir constantl,y while dissolviug, after which strain through cheese 
cloth and when cool add OIL OF CLOVES, 20 drops to the quart, 
to prevent mold and souring. 

ANOTHER GOOD ADHESIVE 

One pound of GUM ARABIC to one quart of water (have 
water quite hot) ; let dissolve slowly, a da.y or two will suffice, 
stirring occasionally; when well dissolved strain through folded 
cheese cloth; add 20 drops of OIL OF CLOVES and a tine strong 
mucilage is the result. 

SHOW CARD INK 

Bleached Gum Shellac, 2 ozs.; Borax Crystals, 1 oz.; water, 
16 ozs. 

Powder the Shellac and Borax in a mortar and place over 
heat in an enameled pot. Boil, and when it begins to foam remove 
from lire and allow it to cool. Repeat the boiling until thoroughly 
dissolved. When again cool strain through cheese cloth. Add 
any desired pigment and mix thoroughly; strain again. 

If a glossy ink is desired add Yellow Dextrin; 1 to 4 ozs. Dex- 
trin to 1 pint of ink. 

However, "glossy lettering" on cards is not much in vogue 
at present, the "flat" effect is most desired. The above will take 
care of the gloss problem, and dispense with the older method of 
using Asphaltum, wdiich must be thinned with Turpentine and 
causes no end of annoyance when the effort is made in other than 
a well equipped sign shop. Hence, as |)reviously mentioned, the 
Dextrin mixture will take care of the Gloss problem when a Gloss 
is intended. 

LETTERINE 

Letterine is a fairly agreeable Ink in Black, but cannot be 
recommended in the colored Inks for the very sane and practical 
reason that they are semi-ti'ansparent, and no lettering mixture 
for any surface in card writing or sign painting can be tolerated 
if semi-transparent. The lettering must be opaque; i. e., thev 
must have COVERING CAPACITY. 

WHITE 

French Zinc White (dry) is the best white for card writing 
purposes. Grind same on slab or mortar same as an}^ dry color. 
It has the very excellent quality of absolute opaeit.y — it covers 
readilv on first stroke on black or dark colored surfaces. 



10 SHOW CARD WRITING 

"MONOGRAM FLAKE WHITE is second" as good "cover- 
ing white" for cards. 

CARDBOARD 

Under tliis head will be given all kinds of board and papers 
necessary to produce the "smart" and novel effects in Show 
Card Art. 

The regular size bristol board is 22x28 inches, half sheet is 
14x22 inches, quarter sheets 11x14, one-eighth are 7x11 inches. 
Following these dimensions the card can always be cut without 
waste, and these sizes are known as "stock sizes"- — not advisable 
to cut them by hand; it is best to have the dealer from whom the 
cards are purchased cut the stock in the sizes given. If the dealer 
has no cutter take your "boards" to the nearest job printer and 
he will cut up the stock for nominal price. 

Double sheets (28x44 inches) are very desirable for large 
cards, obviating the necessity for pasting together two "full 
sheets." 

If double cards cannot be obtained "butt" two full sheets 
together and glue together by using strips of cardboard on back. 
Make these strips at least 5 inches wide to get sufficient adhesive 
surface, and use Le Page's Glue for the adhesive agent. 

Use no bristol board less than 4 PLY and keep in stock 
coated boards (i. e., boards having white glossy surface) and un- 
coated boai'ds (boards having dull surface). The foregoing will 
apply to yoTU- white board. 

Colored cardboard is nearly all finished with a dull "flat"* 
surface, making it very suitable for water color. Obtainable in 
many different shades and made full sheet size only, but of differ- 
ent weights. 

Light weight cards are not desirable. Have weights run from 
4 to 8 ply. 

MATT BOARD 

Matt Board is used extensively for border and frame effects; 
it is finished in a dull pulpy surface, also pebble surface. Obtain 
them from picture frame dealers or wholesale paper houses. 

They form an agreeable contrast when combined with the 
smooth surface of inner cards and panels. 

Not suitable to bear lettering but yield readily to decorative 
effects in floral and ornamental motifs or themes. 

Photographers cardboard is adapted for work of a perma- 
nent character. It has a smooth siirface that "takes" pen letter- 
ing well. Can be obtained in various sizes and is usually beveled. 

*The term "Flat" as applied to paints means a dull surface without gloss. 



ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS 11 

Small photo mounts are very tine for neat exclusive price 
tickets. 

Card signs may be cut into any shape or design dictated 
by the fancy of the letterer, being careful to have the shape of 
the card accommodate itself to the inscription nicely and appropri- 
ate for the purpose intended. 

For example: An extremely fancy shaped card beai'ing a 
memorial inscription would be an unpardonable incongruity, 
whereas a card announcing a floral exhibit could be very ornate 
in its outline as well as in general design. 

The standard sizes of cards less than full sheet were estab- 
lished for economical reasons, which, however, does not prohibit 
the designing of novel cards that call for a little clever cutting, 
and which would incidentally place the product of your hand con- 
spicuously in the lead. 

ARTIFICIAL FLOWERS 

Artificial flowers play a very important part in clever card 
creations, and can be made to enter largely into your very special 
work; fastened quickly to card by means of fine wire passed 
through card and twisted on back. 

FOUNTAIN AIR BRUSH 

The work that can l)e accomplished by this simple instrument 
is not only beautiful l»ut very attractive. 

NO PROGRESSIVE CARD WRITER PRETENDS TO DO 
BUSINESS WITHOUT THIS MOST WONDERFUL LITTLE 
TOOL. 

It is the most important item in the general equipment of the 
card writer catering to modern requirements. 

Air brush work is in evidence everywhere and is deservedly 
popular. 

The instrument is easy to manipulate and most wonderful 
effects can be obtained by it. 

It is used extensively by lithographers, engraving house de- 
signers and artists, portrait artists, photographers, monumental 
designers, etc. 

It is especially desirable for all kinds of Avork whereon differ- 
ent values of tones or shading effects are desired. 

For years it was used by portrait artists exclusively, but has 
recently been improved, the "pencil" model forcing the old block 
model entirely out of the field. 

The Paasche Model E-2 has a marvelous capacity for apply- 



12 SHOW CARD WRITING 

iBg color and distiilniting large quantities in a short time — 
adjustable to the tinest line. 

Especially desu-able where background designs for show cards 
are desired in duplicate and in (|uantiiies large enough to warrant 
the designing and cutting of the stencils or masks. Also in giving 
an agreeable rounded effect to displays or featui-e lines of letter- 
ing upon even your cheapest work. It has the happy faculty of 
lending tone and dignity to the most hurried and rapidly executed 
cards that you would term cheap and mediocre. 

STENCILS OR MASKS FOR THE AIR BRUSH 

The very best material foi- cutting masks for air l)rush work 
is reasonably heavy sheet lead foil. To ])i'epare the foil for cut- 
ting, roll or press in close contact upon sheet of glass, give slight 
thin coat of white water color. 

Design is previously drawn upon white Damascus Bond ])a]^er. 
Rub back of drawing Avith dry English Vermilion (dust oft' 
lightly), attach drawing to glass by means of "stickers," take 8-II 
LEAD PENCIL and trace drawing upon foil, after which proceed 
to cut out the "openings" in foil mask with cambric needle fas- 
tended in holder. 

This mask has the tendency to lay absolutely flat upon the 
card while "}ilaying" the air brush spray upon the openings. 

PAPER MASKS FOR AIR BRUSH 

Paper masks are reconunended if it is impossible to olitain 
lead foil. Proceed as in the foregoing and cut out the "openings" 
with sharp pen knife. 

When in use keep mask in position by weighting it down with 
"printers' leads," or slugs, as they are sometimes called. 

The air brush is practically indestructible and with proper 
care will last for years. The cost of an air brush outfit is expensive 
only in a preliminary way when it is considered that they endure 
no end of usage. Care is the only essential, and it is not safe to 
"feed" an air brush with any but the purest, finest colors and 
inks. Observing this precaution the life of an "air" equipment 
is indefinite. The above Paasche Air Brush Model E-2 supplied 
by publishers of this book or by Paasche Air Brush Co., New Era 
Building, Chicago. 

ATOMIZERS 

Some very pleasing broad eft'ects may be ol)tained by using 
an ordinary perfume atomizer. However, a i:)iece of work sprayed 



RAISED ORNAMENTS 13 

with an atomizer cannot compare with an "AIR BRUSH CREA- 
TION." 

Higgins Drawing Inks may be used successfully in the 
atomizer. 

RAISED ORNAMENTS 

Raised ornaments, in the shape of scrolls, wreaths, ovals, 
circles, odd shaped panels, etc., are used extensively by all pro- 
gressive card writers. They give a card a rich elaborate appear- 
ance. 

They are rendered with the air pencil, which is simply a 
rubber bulb with several differently sha]ied nozzles. 

Fill the bulb with the plastico mixture of the right consistency 
to flow from nozzle inider i)ressure of the hand. 

After lighth' drawing in design with pencil or charcoal, hold 
the bulb in the palm of the right hand and regulate the flow of 
mixture by hand pressure on the bulb. 

The comi^osition may be decorated in various ways, using 
diamond dust, flitter, dry lironze and AIR BRUSH. 

Diamond dust, flitters or bronzes should l)e "dusted" on be- 
fore tlic com]io dries and dusted after it is dry. After vise the 
AIR PENCIL should be well cleaned with hot water. 

PLASTICO FOR AIR PENCIL 

Dissolve 1 pound glue in 1 gallon water; add 2 pounds bolted 
whiting, 2 pounds plaster of paris, and 1 pound keg lead. 

Thicken with whiting or thin with w-ater to w^orking con- 
sistency. 

PLASTICO No. 2 

One pound plaster of paris, 1/4 pound dry white lead, 2 table- 
spoonfuls of liicarbonate of soda. Mix with water to paste con- 
sistency; fill bulb and proceed. 

Various colors can also be produced b.y adding dry colors to 
the plastico mixture. 

The air pencil is manipulated almost the same as pen or 
pencil; design or lettering produced by pressure on the bulb in 
hand of the operator. With practice relief work can be executed 
very rapidly. 

BRONZE POWDERS 

Bronzes may be had in 1 ounce packages; also in 1 and 5 
pound cans. 



14 SHOW CARD WRITING 

Obtainable iu many colors, the pale gold and aluminum being 
the most popular. 

Aluminum should not be confused Avith silver In-ouze, as the 
latter is not at all suital)le for decorative work on cards. 

Bronzes used for shading, underscoring and ornament give a 
card a very rich appearance ^xhen properly mixed. They are 
as easily applied as color. 

They show to best advantage upon dark grounds. 

Bronzes are manufactured in two degrees of fineness — coarse 
or "brilliant," and "striping." 

THE BRILLIANT BRONZES have no covering capacity 
when used fur lettering — they are classed as "RUBBING 
BRONZES." 

STRIPING BRONZE is ground finer and therefore has great 
covering capacity. However, if used clear for lettering it will 
have a lifeless appearance. To overcome tliis difficulty mix one- 
third brilliant bronze with two-thirds STRIPING or LETTER- 
ING BRONZE ground in mucilage the same as any dry color. 

Bronze powders should be kept in tightly corked vials or 
bottles to prevent deterioration in lustre and quality. 

Bronze (except aluminum) should not be used for permanent 
outside signs. It will turn black in a very short time. 

As previously suggested, bronzes will greatly enhance the 
appearance of the most ordinary piece of work; in fact, the judi- 
cious use of gold bronze on ornament, shades, panels and letter- 
ing is to be recommended at all times. 

No card shop is complete without a good assortment of high 
grade bronzes. Don't Iniy the cheap grades. 

FLITTERS OR METALLICS 

Flitters are small l)rilliant metallic particles and quite effec- 
tive for accenting decorative effects on Christmas and New Year's 
cards, wdiieh should be quite ornate in character. They are applied 
per the following: 

Use a small sable brush and apply clear mucilage to the parts 
to be accented and do but a few strokes at a time, as it "strikes" 
in rapidly. Therefore the flitters should be sifted on quickly and 
the surplus dumped upon a sheet of clean paper. Proceed until 
all parts are accented as the fancy or judgment dictates. 

Few" drops of glycerine added to mucilage will retard drying 
too rapidly and permit greater freedom in executing accents be- 
fore dropping on the flitters. 

If two or more colors of flitters are desired u]3on one card 
each color must be applied separately, repeating the process. 



DIAMOND DUST 15 

DIAMOND DUST 

This is a material resembling diamond dust very closely and is 
fine for holiday cards. Can l)e used to enhance the general effect 
of frost and snow in POSTERIZED WINTER LANDSCAPES 

and upon the top edges of letters. 
Apply the same as flitters. 

"CUT OUT" FLOWERS 

WALL PAPER SAMPLE BOOKS will afford an endless 
variety of flat and embossed flowers for card decorations. 

They are to be cut out with pen knife and mounted upon the 
card in position desired, using a good photo-mounting paste. To 
attach them, follow with a few strokes of the "local" color in 
leaves of the floral and they will have the appearance of a hand 
executed bouquet. 

CELLULOID 

Transparent celluloid can be used eft'ectively for creating 
transparent backgrounds in circular and oval openings cut out 
of main card. ^Mounting a cut-out fashion figure upon the cellu- 
loid wiU give a unique and novel eff"ect. 

Mount the celluloid upon "back" of card. Figures of flying 
doves and l)irds can thus be shown realistically. 

WALL PAPERS 

]\Iany patterns of wall paper lend themselves readily to odd 
panel shapes. Can be cut out quickly and mounted upon main 
board. 

ENAMEL AND IMITATION WOOD AND MARBLE 
WALL PAPERS 

Are thin papers and when mounted upon card in artistic shapes 
also produce novel creations that mark the products of your brush 
as distinetivelv different from the "other fellow's." 

CUT-OUTS— FIGURES, ETC. 

Newspapers, magazines, lithographs afford an endless variety 
of figures that can be "filed" and "cut out" when desired. Should 
be used appropriately and not indiscriminately. 

RAISED PANELS 

Raised panels produce very artistic cards. The panel should 
be in harmony with the "matt" or main card— dark red on light 



16 SHOW CAKD \V KITING 

red, deep gray on black, deep blue on light blue, deep PURPLE 
on lavender. Panels may be ornamental or plain, and embellished 
in bronze ornament or color. 

BLENDED GROUNDS 

There are many wa,ys of producing "l)lends." The air brush 
is the most suitable for very tine effects. 

A very tine blend can be produced by using dry colors or 
soft pastels. 

A CHEAP BOX of Pastels can be obtained at the art 
store and will suit all ordinary simple blends. 

Rub the pastels or dry color upon surface and "soften" the 
desired "color values," using compressed wad of cotton. Rub 
briskly and stop when desired effect is reached. 

Do not attempt a blended ground upon a "glossy" or gloss 
coated card; use the "dull surfaced" or uncoated card. The sur- 
face of a card for blending must have a "SLIGHT TOOTH," and 
it naturally follows that the card must be white. 

Aim to render the blended eft'ects in delicate tints — not too 
strong or too low in color key. 

SPATTER WORK 

Spatter or stipple effects are quite novel if rendered carefully. 
The operation is verv simple and adds very materially to the card 
writer's repertoire. 

Panels of lace curtains, silhouettes of objects, such as leaves, 
fruit, heads, etc., may be used and kept in position on card by 
laying card flat and weighting the desired "mask" with ])rinters' 
leads. To spatter exposed space on card select an old worn tooth 
brush, charge with thin w^ater color and rub vigorously back and 
forth on piece of wire window screen (which has been previously 
tacked to light wooden frame), and held at agreeable distance 
above the work. A little practice will demonstrate. 

After sjjattering embellish with lines, ornaments or in any 
manner suggested by the individual taste of the letterer. 

SOAP LETTERING ON MIRRORS 

Cut strip of common laundry soap into wedge shaped "sticks" 
or soap crayons. Use in same manner as flat brush or pen, using 
considerable pressure. 

riean glass thoroughly before beginning the work. SOAP 
LETTERING, in combination with Avater colors for eml)ellish- 
meut in the form of scrolls, floral pieces, etc., is in freqiient de- 



ORNAMENT, BORDERS AND SCROLLS 17 

mand; drug stores, soda fountains and bars favor this class of 
announcement. 

ORNAMENT, BORDERS AND SCROLLS 

On comparatively simple cards all ornament should be sub- 
ordinate to the inscription in color value; embellishment can be 
very ornate as to design and if rendered in subdued color will be 
found verv agreeable. This rule will apply to practically all styles 
of announcement cards. However, it has been agreed that the 
intelligent and artistic use of ornament, and any form of embel- 
lishment, rests with the individual, and there is in reality no fixed 
rule that can be applied except in a very general way. 

OVERPOWERING DESIGNS 

Overpowering designs are designs that are very ornate in 
character and quality, in which lettering panels are created in a 
subordinate or secondary degree, and when lettered are classed 
as high grade and conservative; in fact, very dignified and very 
exclusive. 

LAYOUT 

"Layout" in lettering is the principal fundamental involved. 
Most beginners are prone to "cover" or scatter lettering eutii-ely 
over a given space and are confined only by the "edges" of the 
space. 

This is at once the most offensive erroneous error that can 

be made. 

If the beginner will stop and study the best examples of print- 
ing in catalog and general display composition in newspapers and 
periodicals it will be noticed that the compositor has created 
plenty of margin and white space. 

Lettering will be found to be balanced in the space thus 
created and consequently looks well. 

The same rule applies in card writing and sign painting. 

The inscription should be "well centered," and it is almost 
impossible to go to extremes in this respect. 

The wider the margin the better the card will look in the 
majoritv of cases. 

And also bear in mind that a small letter with plenty of space 
sm-rounding it is more conspicuous than a large letter unless 
similarly handled. 

LAYING OUT INSCRIPTIONS 

Regardless of the style of execution card signs should always 
present a clean, tidy appearance. 



18 SHOW CARD WRITING 

On quick knock-out cards nothing is more essential tlian the 
precaution of keeping the card clean. For tliis Yevy good reason 
the medium employed in "layout" should be of a substance easily 
removed from the surface after it has served its purjiose. 

For white and light colored cards Artists' French Charcoal 
is suggested. (Sharpen to tine point upon sandpaper pad; lines 
and lettering should be indicated very lightly and faintly — after 
lettering is dry the charcoal can be removed with few quick 
strokes from a feather duster. 

For dark cards use white school crayons. Sharpen to point 
with pen knife, di^) in water and withdraw quickly. It will then 
make delicate neat line, readily erased with the sponge rubber, 
without injury to card surface. 

8-H (hard) lead pencils may he employed if carefid to avoid 
pressure. Apply lightly and do not use pencils upon glossy card 
surfaces. Use light pressure charcoal. 

CORRECTING ERRORS 

Errors in card writing are bound to occur and are annoying 
and expensive. The best wa,y to avoid mistakes is to render 
the layout fvdly; carefully read before proceeding to "letter" 
the card. This will only occupy a minute or so and wall reduce 
to a minimum the possibility of several mistakes each day in your 
card shop. 

Errors are rectified per following: 

On white cards scrape out letter or letters with sharp pen 
knife or ink eraser (steel point). Do not penetrate below the 
glazed coating. 

When color is entirely removed, rub the scraped surface with 
piece of fine sandpaper, after wdiich polish with knife handle or 
thumb nail. 

Error on dark glazed card may be removed by passing DAMP 
CLOTH or DAMP CHAMOIS SKIN (must be done qui.kly) 
over color to be removed — must be vigorous and quick stroke 
to avoid disturbing the glazing of the card, which is also water 
color. 

On tinted cards after scraping out the color, it will be found 
necessary to "match up" the ground or color of the card. How- 
ever, it is quicker and better to "coat out" the entire line of 
lettering with a dark color and create a panel ])y so doing. 

Follow by re-lettering in white or tint color upon the dark 
panel of color. 

This in most cases adds to, rather than detracts from, gen- 
eral appearance of the card, and looks intentional from the start. 



REMOVING PENCIL MARKS AND DIRT 19 

REMOVING PENCIL MARKS AND DIRT 

Dip spouge rubber in powdered pumice stone and erase marks 
and soil spots. 

Wipe greasy spots caused by perspiration from hand with 
solution of bicarl)onate of soda, thimbleful to tablespoonful of 
water, or mix soap water with the color. Both are effective. 

CARD ALPHABETS 

Signs may be properly divided into two classes, viz.: the 
"temporary" sign and the "permanent" sign. Signs of a tem- 
porary nature command little remuneration as compared with 
the permanent kind. However, the profit from the temporary 
sign in proportion to outlay of time and material usually exceeds 
the profit from the permanent sign. 

All temporary signs, including cards, are termed "cheap 
signs," i. e., signs costing little money, wdiich follows that the 
quicker they are executed, the greater the profit. 

This applies to all kinds of signs; and Avhen it is consid- 
ered that the sum received for an equal amount of work on any 
other siu'face is four or five times greater than that received for 
a card, it can readily be deduced that speed is the most valuable 
attribute. For this reason, card writing alphabets should be 
carefully chosen. 

The brush strokes should be reduced to the lowest miniminn. 
Every stroke requires additional time, making it al)solutely essen- 
tial that the style or styles employed should be those carrying 
the least numl)er of strokes. 

The Round Block and Tuscan Round Block, and modified 
styles derived from them, lend themselves easily to rapid exe- 
cution via the "single -stroke" method. "One stroke" does not 
imply that the entire letter can be executed witli one stroke. 
This Avould be a physical impossibility. It implies that each 
individual part or composite of the letter can be executed with 
one stroke. 

For example, the letter "A" can be executed in three strokes, 
if the "EgA-ptian" or "Plug" style is used; one stroke each for 
the side or oblique strokes, and one stroke across for the hori- 
zontal stroke. This is the full meaning of the term single stroke. 

Now take the Full Block (square), and to execute the let- 
ter "S" seriously requires just twenty-eight strokes; in the 
Egyptian or "Plug" style (single-stroke method), it requires just 
three strokes; to execute the Egyptian "S" in serious style 
would require eight strokes. 

This naturally places great emphasis upon the importance 



20 SHOW CAED WRITING 

of using "speed styles" and those that adapt themselves to single- 
stroke execution. 

Referring to the foregoing, it is necessary to add that no 
piece of work should "carry" exclusive single-stroke styles. 

Never execute an entire inscription in a single-stroke style. 
The Display or Feature Line should be a finished style, except in 
Motto inscriptions, which may be rendered in Old English or 
Bradley Text. 

Also bear in mind that on card work a finished line of letter- 
ing in conjimction with single-stroke styles will always "cany 
well" and present a neat, attractive appearance. 

"SPEED ALPHABETS" 

Following is a list of alphabets that are known and termed 
"single -stroke" alphabets. 
^Modern Italic. 
Modern Full Block. 
Bradley Text. 
Heavy Script. 
Italic Script. 
Old English. 
Tuscan Block. 

FINISHED ALPHABETS 

Eg^-ptian, Antique Roman, ^lodern Italic. 

These three styles should be used exclusively where a "fin- 
ished" letter is required. 

"Finished" in this sense means just what the word implies 
■ — i. e., a letter that is formed and proportioned, showing all details 
and characteristics, omitting none of the component parts, or 
in any way abbreviating the execution, which is so compulsory 
in one-stroke work. Most every inscription contains one or more 
lines or words that should be prominently displayed, and should 
in most eases be executed in finished styles. 

The principal reason for this rule is, that a correctly or 
seriously finished line of lettering or words will give a ra])idly 
executed sign a touch of dignity and redeem it from an other- 
wise ordinary piece of work, therefore making it almost needless 
to say "that it is imperative to master correct formation and 
execution of the styles known as 'Finished Letters.' " 

LOWER CASE 

Apropos of the foregoing, and in connection therewith, will 
say that Lower Case Lettering should he used almost exclusively. 



MODERN FULL BLOCK 21 

This should be borne in mind constantly. A card lettered in 
lower case is much more interesting, and incidentally it must be 
mentioned that they can be executed more rapidly in most of 
the styles recommended; also note how much better lower case 
will read than upjier case, which is the most clinching argument 
in favor of lower case. 

Modern Italic (Lower Case) 

A practical and artistic letter that meets with all speed 
requirements. Originated by Mr. Chas. J. Strong, Founder of 
the Detroit School of Lettering, and for many years a conspicu- 
ous figure in Sign Painting Circles in Chicago and other large 
cities. 

The alphabet is a combination of Italic and Full Block; its 
fullness of stroke is characteristic of the Full Block; the slant 
and general contour is that of the Italic. It can be executed 
with fewer strokes than any known one-stroke style, with the 
exception of the Regular Italic Script. 

Mastering this style prepares you for all speed emergencies 
that might arise in your daily work as a Professional Card 
Writer. 

MODERN FULL BLOCK 

Modern Full Block will answer for capitals in conjunction 
with Modern Italic. Never use them in a word entirely Upper 
Case, for the reason that they carry ornate features that unfit 
them for full words; however, they can be vised as "starting 
letters." 

Modern Italic (upper case) is the natural capital for jNIodern 
Italic (lower case), and should be so used in most cases. 

BRADLEY TEXT 

This al])habet is extremely modern, and can be truthfully 
called "Abbreviated Old English," as it was derived from the 
Old English Alphabet, designed by Will Bradley, a famous Amer- 
ican Decorative Artist. It is very handsome, and appropriate 
for any part of an inscription, except display lines, and in some 
cases even display lines, using "Bradley" throughout. 

Executed rapidly with either pen or flat brush. 

Should at all times be used upper and lower case; never 
combine the capitals of this alphabet. It applies to all letters 
more or less eccentric in form. However, combining the capitals 
of the standard styles, such as Full Block, Half Block, Roman, 
etc., is not only legitimate, but customary and advisable. 



22 SHOW CARD WRITING 

HEAVY SCRIPT 

Heavy Script is employed to good advantage in display lines 
or words, especially if the words are short. It is a one-stroke 
style, and with the proper brush can be executed easily if the 
"swell" pressure is exerted; in fact, the same movement is used 
when writing with a Spencerian pen, except that the movement 
is not a continuous one. Form the composites of the Script with 
individual single strokes. 

Never overdo Script on a card unless in the serious Spen- 
cerian Style, in which case the entire inscription may be in Scrijit. 

The Tailoring Business is very partial to "All Script" inscrip- 
tions, and, as suggested, it is best to use Spencerian or similar 
light-face Script. 

Italic Script 

Italic Script is in reality half-script, derived from Standard 
Spencerian Script. The curves, flourishes and connecting strokes 
of Spencerian Script are alisent in Italics. 

Capital Italics are condensed Romans, slanted in harmony 
with the Lower Case Italic. Italic Script is not suitable for any 
part of an inscription, except subordinate lines — i. e., the second- 
ary portion of the "copy." 

OLD ENGLISH 

Old English is a flat brush or pen style, and in tlie one-stroke 
list; suitable for "display heads" or entire inscriptions; very 
classy and dignified. 

TUSCAN BLOCK 

Tuscan Block is a splendid one-stroke letter if formed "light 
face" (not too heavy); very speedy on account of predominating 
curves. You will note the components are all variations of curve, 
with exception of vertical strokes, and the "diagonals." It is 
used with great frequency by the sign painter, and, as suggested 
above, is splendid if executed in light-face stroke. 

FINISHED STYLES 

Antique Roman. — Space permitting, it is a fine style for 
"displays" on cards. It cannot be successfully condensed; must 
be as nearly normal in proportion as the space will permit. For 
a finished style it can be executed quite ra]iidly without detri- 
mental effect. 

The vertical stroke (both sides) is first executed ; folloAV with 



NUMERALS 23 

the horizontal stroke, and lastly add the spur strokes. The Red 
Sable Rigger is the most suitable brush for Antique Roman. 

Egyptian Alphabet. — It is possible to render this style in a 
finished manner by the one-stroke method with a good brush hav- 
ing a square point which will admit extremities being executed 
without recourse to additional strokes to "clean" them and remove 
ragged edges. 

A very agreeable style, if not too heavy in stroke; if too 
heavy, it will look chimsy. 

NUMERALS 

Light-face Roman, heavj^-face Roman and modified "French" 
are all splendid for price tickets and ALL NUMERALS in Card 
Writing. 

ART OF LETTERING 

In the art of lettering we have no fixed rvdes; the law is 
based entirely upon approximates. With the laity, or people 
outside of the profession, the supposition is that all letters are 
the same size, formed on mathematical lines. Nothing is farther 
from the truth. All letters are the same size in appearance, and 
are so rendered by the ])rofessional, whose trained e_ye and expe- 
rience direct which letters are to have normal space and those 
that must occujn' MORE SPACE and those that must occupy 
less SPACE. 

It is thus that the pleasing uniformity of size is produced. 

COMPOSITION 

Composition in lettering is almost too intangible to define by 
ANY RULE. 

All the mathematical formulae ever given on the subject are 
incapable of equaling the result that may be obtained by spacing 
and producing the effect solely from artistic experience and intui- 
tion. Tlie final result should always be judged by THE EYE 
(no tools of measurement employed at all) , which must be trained 
until it is susceptible to the slightest deviation from a perfect 
whole. 

It is more difficult to define good composition in lettering than 
in "painting" or any other of the more generally accepted arts, 
and it resolves back into the same problem. 

The eye must be trained by constant study of good and pleas- 
ing forms, also proportions, until it appreciates instinctively 
almost intangible mistakes in spacing and general arrangement. 

This question of composition is so important that an inscrip- 








IS' 



SHOW CARD WRITING 

tioii of most beautiful individual letter forms, 
badly spaced, will not produce as pleasing an 
effect as an arrangement of more awkward, 
badly proportioned, poorly executed letters, 
when their arrangement or layout is good. 

Any professional sign writer or designer 
will tell you that a good "layout" (good com- 
position) is the most essential thing in pro- 
ducing good examples of sign art. 

This quality has been disregarded to such 
an extent by many beginners, and even men 
far advanced (so called liecause of time spent) 
in the profession, that it is of vital importance 
the aml:>itious student's attention be directed 
to it with great emphasis, in order that he 
may give the subject of composition serious 
consideration from the very start and con- 
tinue to keep it in mind for all time, for the 
very good reason that there will be no time in 
his career that its importance can be imder- 
estimated or neglected without serious injury 
to his work. 

SHADING 

Shading is used to cause letters, scrolls, 
etc., to appear in relief, or to appear projected 
or raised from the background, and is the 
most important auxiliary of lettering. 

The subject of shades and shadows are di- 
versified, and either of the examples shown 
can be used at the will of the letterer. 

Shading to the left and on the bottom is un- 
A\ritten law in signpainting, and is usually ex- 
ecuted at about a forty-five degree angle, it 
Iteing assumed that light falls upon the letter 
at this angle. 

On the round letters, C, D, B, G, J, 0, P, Q, 
S, U, &, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, it is a common, unjusti- 
fiable error with many to crowd the shade ex- 
tremities beyond the points of limitation, 
with the bad effect of making the shade ap- 
pear clumsy and distorted, and failing in the 
primary object. Figure 4 shows the incorrect 
method to which reference is made. 



SPACING 25 

All letters must be shaded on the same angle, and every char- 
acteristic must be indicated as at "a," Fig. 5, and every part of 
shade should be of equal width on all letters, except the round 
letters, whereon the shade reaches the extreme width only at the 
point shown at "a," Fig. 4. 

On letters A, Y, V, W, M, the shade is narrower in width on 
the diagonal "letter strokes" that are affected by the shade at 
a forty-five degree angle. 

On ordinary work and Card Writing, the relief shade is 
most commonly used, as it permits of quick execution, and in 
most cases is rendered in single stroke, using a brush that will 
accommodate itself to the width of the shade desired. 

Where extremities of letters are close together, the stroke 
can be left disconnected, which liberty is legitimate and permis- 
sible, especially on card work. 

On the relief shade leave "relief space" quite wide — i. e., the 
space between the edge of letter and inner edge of shade; it gives 
the letter better emphasis and is more professional. 

SPACING 

A line of lettering on any surface, no matter what style, must 
have a starting point and a stopping point. These two points 
are a matter of taste with the workman and are not "permanently 
established" until a rough layout of the entire inscription is made, 
this is to be rendered VERY FAINTLY in chalk, charcoal or 
pencil, to permit of repeated correction and alteration, if same 
is found necessary. 

The governing factor is the rule that a letter cannot be con- 
densed or elongated to the point of distortion, however the lati- 
tude is very wide in both extremes before reaching distortion, 
owing to the many and varied modifications of the standard fixed 
styles normal in proportion. Hence the taste of the workman 
can be exercised to almost an unlimited degree in condensing and 
elongating. 

Never condense a letter more than 3-5, and never extend or 
elongate more than 5-5. 

No matter how long a space is, when it is to carry a short 
word, never extend lettering more than 5-5 — which would create 
a "letter space" 5-5 high by 10-5 wide. Take away sufficient 
space from each end of space so that the lettering will approxi- 
mate itself into 10-5 spaces, with good proportionate space be- 
tween letters. 

"Space" between letters must be proportionate and not dic- 
tated bv any mathematical rule, the sole intent is to equalize the 



26 SHOW CARD WRITING 

open or blank space between letters, j)rodueing a pleasing effect 
of approximate space, incidentally compelling the word to read 
solidly or in com^jact fonn. If this rule is not carefully observed 
3^ou will frequently execute words that will have a "scattered" 
effect, broken into syllables, or one or two letters having the ap- 
pearance of separating themselves from their fellows. 

All round letters should be spaced a trifle more closely to 
each other (such as C, J, G, 0, and Q) and the full space letters 
such as B, D, E, H, K, M, N, R, U, S, X, Z must be allowed more 
space between them. All "open" letters. A, F, J, L, P, T, V, W, 
Y, must be spaced very close, owing to their open spaces. 

In order to get the appearance of uniformity throughout a 
line of lettering it is necessary to observe the following: 

In normal or square space lettering divide letter space into 
fifths, five sqviares high, and five squares wide. For A add 1/5 
to width, B nonnal, G normal, D normal, for E 1/2 of 1/5 less in 
width, F 1/2 of 1/5 less in width, G normal, H 1/1 of 1/5 less in 
width, 1 1/5, J 1/5 less in width, K normal, L 1/5 less in width, M 
add 1/5 to width, N 1/2 of 1/5 less in width, add 1/2 of 1/5 to 
width, P normal, Q add 1/2 of 1/5 to width, R normal, S normal, 
T normal in Full Block, Tuscans, and Romans, and practically 
all styles except EGYPTIAN, where it is 1/2 of 1/5 less in width. 
U 1/4 of 1/5 less in width, V add 1/2 of 1/5 to width, W add 2/5 
to width, X normal, Y add 1/2 of 1/5 to width, Z normal, &c. 
normal. 

Same increase and reduction must be ol)served in elongating 
and condensing, and in condensed lettering the reduction of L, 
E, F, H, J, N, and T may be highly exaggerated without detri- 
mental effect. Quite the contrary, the eft'ect is pleasing and 
highly proper. 

On "full face" lettering, viz: Full Block, Half Block, Round 
Block, and Tuscan Block, draw all horizontal strokes one minor 
fifth less in width than vertical strokes. 

If this suggestion is not observed the horizontal strokes will 
appear clumsy or larger than the vertical strokes, although in 
reality they are the same size. The foregoing suggestion wdll 
overcome the delusion and will give the letter an interesting and 
pleasing contour. 

MAJOR FIFTH AND MINOR FIFTH 

A normal letter s]>ace is square, subdivided into twenty-five 
smaller or "unit" squares, making a letter space five major fifths 
high and five major fifths wide. Now, if we subdivide one major 
fifth or imit square into fifths, we have minor fifths. 

Major and minor fifths are used in an elementary way to 



COLOR COMBINATIONS 



27 



assist in fixing good approximate proportions in letter form, must 
positively be abandoned as soon as the student is qualitied to 
draw and form lettering Avithout their assistance. 

COLOR COMBINATIONS 

Where color is used for letters, lines, etc., black or dark 
colors should l)e used upon white or light colored grounds, and 
vice versa. 

In using colors great care should be taken to have tones har- 
monize agreeably, for example: on dark green grovmd use white, 
on lemon yellow tint, or on pink tint groimd use black or deep 
red, on deep blue use white, pale flesh tint or pale blue tint. 

AMien more than one color is used the following combinations 
will be found valual)le. 

TRI COLOR NEUTRAL 



Background — 


Letter — 


Shade— 


Black 


White 


Dark gray 


Black 


Light gray 


White 


While 


Black 


Light gray 


Wliitc 


Gray 


Black 


I ieht pray 


Black 


White 


Dark gray 


White 


Black 



SCKCILL 

Dark gray 
Dark gray 
Medium gray 
Medium gray 
Black 
Black 



Bdrder — 
Medium gray 
Dark gn, y 
Medium gray 
Black line 

r)ouble black fine line 
Pale gray 



_<ANEL— 

Pale gray 
Medium gray 
Pale gray 
Dark gray 
Medium gray 
Black 



If softer contrasts are desired on gray grounds, use very light 
or very dark grays instead of black or white. 

WARM COLOR COMBINATIONS 



r.ROCND 


Letter — 


Red 


Pink 


Deep red 


Pink 


Yellow 


Deep olive 


ftrange 


Deep red 


Maroon 


Light l)uff 


Pale buflf 


Maroon 


Pale yellow 


Maroon or red 



Shade — 
Maroon 
Carmine 
Orange 
Yellow 
Black 

Medium buflf 
Pale old gold 



Scroll — 
Maroon 
Vermilion 
Drange mineral 
Lemon tint 
Maroon pink 
Yellow ochre 
Very pale yellow 



Border — 


Panel — 


Deep red 


M^troon 


Vermilion 


Black 


Pale olive 


Pale olive 


Medium yellow 


Medium old gold 


Old gold 


Medium old gold 


White 


White 


Medium yellow 


Orange 



Ground — 
Medium blue 
Dark blue 
Light blue 
Dark green 
Medium green 
Light green 



COLD COLOR COMBINATIONS 



Letter — 


Shade — 


Scroll — 


Pale blue 


Black 


B'ue green tint 


Pale green 


Black 


Medium blue 


Dark blue 


White 


Medium blue 


Pale green 


Black 


Medium green 


White 


Black 


Dark green 


Dark green 


Black 


Medium green 



Border — 
Blue green tint 
Pale blue 
Pale blue 
Pale green 
Pale green 
Medium green 



Pan'fl — 
Black 
Pale blue 
Deep blue 
Pale green 
Dark green 
Dark green 



To strengthen contrasts in cold bines or greens, nse black 
and white for lettering instead of very light or very dark color. 

STRONG CONTRASTS 



Ground — 


Letter — 


Shade— 


Scroll — 


Light green 


Black 


Red 


Medium green 


Medium yellow 


Blue or black 


White or orange 


Same as shade 


Pale pink 


Maroon 


Vermilion 


Vermilion 


Black 


White 


Red or orange 


Medium purple 


Red (deep) 


White 


Black 


Vermilion 


Deep purple 


White 


Black 


Medium purple 


Olive 


Light yellow 


Tuscan red 


Tuscan red 


Deep olive 


Pale green 


Black 


Old gold 


Warm chocolate 


Pale yellow tin 


Tuscan 


Old gold 



Border — 
Green tint 
Orange 
Deeper pink 
I'ale green 
Medium red 
Medium old gold 
Citron yellow 
Orange 
Orange 



Panel — 
Red 

Old gold 
Deep red 
Red 
Black 

Medium blue green 
Black 
Red 
Bright red 



28 SHOW CARD WRITING 

ELEMENTARY COLOR MIXING 

In this table the first color named is the base, and should be 
used in the greatest quantity. The colors following should be 
added until desired shade or tone is reached: 

Yellow and blue produce green. 

Yellow and red produce orange. 

Red and blue produce purple. 

Red, yellow and blue produce citron. 

Yellow and black prodvice olive. 

Red, yellow and black produce russet. 

Yellow, black and red produce brown. 

Red and black or blue produce maroon. 

"Wliite, red, yellow and blue produce neutral gray. 

White and blue produce light blue. 

Wliite and red produce pink. 

White, yelloAv and red produce flesh. 

White and yellow produce cream. 

Yellow, blue and red produce bronze green. 

Blue and rod produce violet. 

"VMiite, black and red produce lavender. 

Rich tones and shades may be compounded 1)y adding to the 
foregoing opaque colors, such trans})arent colors as burnt sienna, 
burnt umber, carmine, olive lake, ultramarine blue, turkey red, 
red lake, emerald green, etc. 

For experimental color mixing take glass slab and muller 
(with palette knife for picking up color), also small pair of lieam 
scales. 

First series of experiments is to oljtain tints of the various 
colors by reducing with white. 

Take in turn each of the ordinary colors such as Prussian 
blue, medium chrome, yellow, ivory Idack, yellow ochre, Indian 
red, Venetian red, turkey red, mediinn chrome, green and light, 
English vermilion. 

Weigh out of each a very small portion, place them sepa- 
rately on the slab, tlien weigh out 10 ]3arts of white, add it to each 
and grind thoroughly. Note the effect of adding the white, how 
in some cases the color is very materially changed, while in others 
it is not altered to so great an extent. 

You will also note that in distem]ier color the tint Avhen dry 
is nu;ch lighter or higher in color value. This must be noted 
carefully when mixing opaque water colors, especially when mixed 
with white. 

Having done this a small portion of each color may be painted 



ELEMENTARY COLOR MIXING 29 

on a card, the pure color and tJie tint side by side (be siu'e to add 
the mucilage to bind), and a record of the proportions used. Vary 
by taking equal parts of white and color, when it will be found 
that there is comparatively little difference, and then 20, 30 and 50 
parts of white respectively. 

This will form a permanent record of the effect of white 
when added to the diiferent colors, and we advise the beginner to 
tint and record every color obtainable, and the "color cards" and 
records thus made placed on file for reference. Following this 
the student now arrives at the admixture of colors, and following 
the same plan as before we take one color and add it to another 
color or colors. 

It is well to classify the colors under the different heads, 
such as reds, yellows, blues, greens, browns, etc. Yet it must be 
considered that one series of colors merges into another. For 
example, we have a pure blue in the shape of Prussian blue, and 
to this may be added more or less red until it becomes a purple, 
or more or less yellow until it becomes a green. 

Thus we have bluish green or greenish blue, according to the 
color which predominates. 

Starting with the reds, take a normal bright red, such as 
queen's red, and experiment with it by adding small portions of 
different yellows, then different small portions of various blues, 
then by adding a very little blue and yellow to the red, and notice 
how the tone is lowered without producing anything of a muddy 
appearance. Try also the effect of adding a little black and note 
the difference. 

Next experiment with the more sombre reds, taking Venetian 
red and Indian red as standards and adding reds, yellows and 
blues and various colors to them to get different effects. 

The study of reds should occupy several weeks at least, and 
at the end of that time the student will have gained very valuable 
infomiation which will be of life-long service if filed for reference 
and eventually memorized. 

Gi'eens are as interesting as any portion of color study be- 
cause of the great variety of hues obtainable. 

Starting with Prussian blue and medium chrome yellow, 
equal parts, note the brilliancy of the green thus produced. Then 
try lemon yellow and note how much more vivid it is, using the 
varioiis yellows complexed with reds, umbers and the siennas, 
a never ending list of pleasing greens is obtained. 

Make a note under each sample stating the relative parts of 
the admixture. 

Hang the color chart in shop for reference at all times. The 



30 SHOW CARD WRITING 

fact of having actually made the admixtures will iu itself impress 
some of the effects upon the student's memory, and by referring 
to the chart frequently, will eventually absorb the entire system 
of producing "color." 

The foregoing may at first appear al)surd to the prospective 
card writer. However, it is well to bear in mind that the more one 
can do with "color" the greater claim one will have to recogni- 
tion, and a full knowledge of color brings its own reward and is 
as important as the skill required to produce a "card." 

PRACTICE WORK 

For practice work, provide yourself with medium grade of 
Manila wrapping paper. 

When you practice the various styles most suitable for card 
writing and temporary work, such as oilcloth signs, banners, etc., 
remember that card writing is not presumed to be executed with 
the careful attention to detail that is required for permanent 
sign work. However, it must not be presumed that this means 
careless, shiftless handling, and there are several terms used by 
judges of good lettering to express their approval of work that 
comes to their notice, among which might be mentioned "dash," 
"snap," "nifty," "classy" and character. The first four terms 
mean practically the same thing. The last is easily surmised; a 
letter without character means a shaliby, slovenly or amateurish- 
looking affair, with long and short spurs or their absence on some 
letters in the same line, deformed, too thin in the heavy strokes, 
and vice versa, badly proportioned, and showing lack of knowl- 
edge of the style attempted; in fact, it could be termed "almost 
a sign." 

A letter, to have the first mentioned attributes, must look 
bold, stand erect, be graceful and "pure" in style, and have the 
look, dash and "swing" of the professional. 

"Professional lettering" is always interesting, more so than 
"type forms"; the absence of "swing" and the exact and pre- 
cise proportions of "type" make them appear "machine-made." 

Stiff, rigid lines are absent to a large degree in "hand let- 
tering," even that which is executed seriously and pronounced 
"perfect." 

The "snap" and "dash" referred to can only be acquired 
through diligent practice with the brush. 

Try to cultivate "dash" and "swing" from the start; 
endeavor to maintain "purity" of style, and do not feel satisfied 
imtil your work will "class" and hold up with the "other 
fellows." 



AUTOMATIC BRUSH 31 

Circles 

Circles may be "brush drawn" with large wooden compass, 
regulation drafting instrument with extension bar, or with loop 
of common twine. 

The best and quickest method is the twine and "AUTO- 
MATIC BRUSH." Drive nail in center of circle and tie full 
loop, half the diameter of the circle, in the twine; pass "loop" 
over nail, insert brush (just above bristle) in other end of loop, 
brush previously "cliarged" with color by "stomping" upon 
palette. Hold brush in a vertical position, draw loop "taut" and 
forge ahead on a continuous stroke until cu'cle is complete. 

AUTOMATIC BRUSH 

Take any size flat bristle brush, unchiseled; bind with piece 
of thin tin or brass, leaving the bristles exposed three-eigliths of 
an inch. Charge, I\v stomping in color laid on a palette; use in 
same manner as carpenter uses his pencil against his rule. In 
this manner a stripe can be drawn in color fully twenty feet, uni- 
foi'm and clean, as quickly as the operator can walk backward. 
This is the brush (if small size is used) for "circles" on cards. 

Lines Without Straight Edge 

Use a short string with "bowline" tied in one end. If top 
and bottom of sign or bench is straight, it is the only requirement. 

All lines drawn with the string will parallel the guide line 
or edge of sign or bench. Pass crayon or pencil into loop of 
string; hold the pencil between thumb and forefinger of the 
right hand. The thumb and forefinger of the left hand should 
l>e placed beneath the edge of the bench or sign and kept in a 
rigid position. If under edge of sign is inaccessible, place sign 
on a ledge so as to form a right angle with the sign. The fingers 
holding the lower end of the string should now be run along or 
in the groove thus formed. 

"Dot" the points where lines are desired, and then begin at 
left of sign, keeping string "taut," and move both hands simul- 
taneously to the right. Repeat for each line. String must be 
kept perpendicular, or lines will sag to the right. 

PLAIN CARDS 

Without question, the most popular style of card with busi- 
ness houses in general is the white card bearing black lettering. 
It can be depended upon to give satisfaction in the majority of 
cases. Also, in the majority of cases, the plain card is the most 



32 SHOW CARD WRITING 

desirable; and again, l)lacl-: and white is the strongest conti'ast 
obtainable. The main thing demanded in all classes of sign 
painting is "legibility." This requirement is often overlooked 
and neglected by the too zealous young card writer, who wishes 
to give expression to his artistic ability, whether good, l)ad or 
indifferent. Rarely indeed will you find a customer who will 
complain that your work is too plain, or ])ecause of an absence 
of ornamental flourishes. A sign that cannot be read at a glance 
will not, as a rule, meet with the approval of your customer. 
Very few are attracted by ornate features on a piece of work. 
No matter how cleverly a card is lettered, it can be rendered abso- 
lutely worthless by an "overdose" of scroll work. Ornament 
should never be carried to such an extreme that it may l)e termed 
on the whole as superfluous. 

There is a strong line of demarcation between an overwrought 
piece of w^ork and the example that has "just enough" embel- 
lishment, so it is well to be conservative in the matter of fancy 
lettering and embellishment; and again, the line of business gov- 
erns to a very important extent. Fancy, ornate cards would he 
appropriate for Millinery, Candy Shop, Place of Amusement, etc. ; 
for the more conservative lines, their use would be prohiliitive 
— the taste would dictate something very dignified and rich. In 
the main, the general tendency among professional card writers 
is to suppress ornament and avoid unnecessary details. It 
requu-es real ability to execute a "clever" card which can be 
termed "the personification of simplicity and legibility." 

MORE ABOUT COLOR SCHEMES 

The average "run" of "cards" can be "white," bearing neat 
Black Lettering, with Light Gray Shade. Keep inscription well 
centered and balanced. Always l)ear in mind that this style of 
card is appropriate for any line of business, and can be used 
without fear of criticism. "This stvle of SHOW CARD IS AS 
STAPLE AS SUGAR." 

Another very handsome style will be found in white card, 
black lower case letter, Red Capitals; matt line two inches from 
edge of card. This matt line to be quite fine, in Red or Gold 
Bronze. 

For a rich card, use white, all black lettering, gold bronze 
shade, gold bronze matt line. 

MARGINS 

It is never necessary for show cards to carry letters as large 
proportionately as the outside or permanent sign. 



P 
< 

o 

iz; 
<l 
h 

O 

Ph 

02 

o 

«2 
O 

o 
o 

< 

o 

P^ 
02 



arj 



SPECIAL COLOR SCHEMES FOR FANCY CARDS 33 

Show Cards should always have a 
very liberal margiu, much more than 
any style of sign. 

The Inscription should be well 
"centered" — i. e., kept well in from 
the outside edge of the card all 
around. It is almost impossible to go 
to extremes in this respect; the wider 
the margin, the better the card will 
look, in the majority of cases. How- 
ever, the matter of margins, like all 
other phases of the art of Card Writ- 
ing, must be governed by sensible 
principles and precedents. 

Always bear in mind that a small 
letter with lots of space surrounding 
it is more conspicuous than a large 
letter, imless similarlv handled. 






'IS'" losi 









•a-9 a §^ 












P >.^>1 >V >i 



j-tt:'^ r"^ ;;; ^"o 



sasQSisKa >>(::::s.C7if 



SCROLLS AND BORDERS 

All decorative features in the form 
of scrolls, borders and lines should 
always appear in subdued color, 
much less conspicuous than the colors 
used for lettering. THE STYLE of 
ornamentation is not so important, 
providing this rule is followed. 

The motif of decoration may be 
A^ery elaborate upon a FANCY 
CARD, if the color scheme is com- 
paratively indistinct, thus not de- 
tracting from the inscription. 

BORDERS 

If border is heavy and massive, the 
more the necessity for adhering 
closely to the foregoing paragraph 
with reference to color value; but if 
it is delicate and light in weight, the 
color can be proportionately stronger 
— in fact, pure colors, such as red, 
l)lue, green, even black, may be used 
agreeably. 



34 SHOW CARD WRITING 

Reversing Ornament 
Corner Pieces and Scroll Panels 

Use piece of thin Manila paper, if corner piece; "draw in" 
fully upon the Manila with ])iece of black carbon paper under- 
neath the drawing, carbon side up. This will give you duplicate 
drawing upon the under side of your paper, and in reversed posi- 
tion (duplicate). Place in position upon your card, carbon paper 
underneath (carl)on side down). Trace with hard lead pencil, 
and repeat for subsequent duplicates at each corner. 

For conventional scroll designs or designs luiiform in charac- 
ter as to sides and general outline, proceed as for corner pieces, 
except that you "draw in" one-half of the design and duplicate, 
as previously suggested. 

Patterns for air brush masks and stencils are made in the 
same way with reference to preliminary drawing; should be trans- 
ferred to heavy cardboard or foil, per previous suggestion under 
the heading, "Stencils or Masks for the Air Brush." 

Patterns for raised cardboard panels are prepared in the 
same way by drawing in design upon separate paper and trans- 
ferring, after which they are cut out with stencil cutters knife 
or (if not too intricate as to design) with a pair of sharp scissors. 

Rococo Scroll 

Rococo is without question the most Y)oj)ular scroll used by 
the lettering ])rofession, for the very important reason that it is 
the most flexible of all known ornament, meaning that it can be 
rendered in an endless variety of combinations, very elaljorate 
for brush execution, and simplified for jianels that are to be cut 
out and used for raised effects. 

Ribbons 

Ribbons can be used effectively in (•oml)ination with scroll 
effects, and must be pleasing in contoui- and kept simple and 
artistic. The examples shown in "design division" of this work 
will serve as general guide. 

Fancy Initials or Capitals 

are indispensable to the card writer. Never use more than One 
on a card. If more than one is used in an inscription, the card 
will look overdone, making more than "One Cap" superfluous. 

The "Illumination" or ornamental features are to be ren- 
dered in subordinate color values, as previously suggested hints 
on ornament. The ilhunination must of necessity be simple, easy 



PRICES FOR CARDS 35 

to render, and quick; otherwise, if too elaborate and serious, it 
would naturally be prohibitive. 

PRICES FOR CARDS 

No work of this kind would be complete with the Price code 
eliminated. It will therefore be given due consideration in a gen- 
eral way, and sufficiently to guide you in your every-day work. 

With beginners in Sign Painting and Card Writing, the tend- 
ency is to quote too low instead of too high. 

Place a value upon your work that will yield a satisfactory 
profit, conunensurate with your ability. Charges can always be 
modified a trifle, but it is one of the physical impossibilities to 
advance the price if, tlu-ough ignorance or carelessness, the fii'st 
price is found too low. 

No excuses can be offered for the low price, unless the reason 
be that of meeting a price-cutting competitor, and that is no 
reason at all. A price-cutting war between rival sign painters or 
card writers meets with but one logical end — the retirement of 
one or both from the field, and incidentally the cheapening of a 
medium of commercial publicity that has a true and intrinsic 
value to the advertiser. 

With the card writer, the price problem is not a very serious 
one. Materials used are nearly the same the year round, and the 
sizes are limited. Cost of materials is comparatively vmimpor- 
tant. Time to execute work is the principal factor. Nor will 
■you, in the beginning, as a novice, figure on getting the same 
prices and consideration that the expert gets and is entitled to. 
Your ability is the first essential to develop, and this accom- 
plished, your price list and profits will take care of themselves, 
provided your scale of j^rices on staple items is consistent. 

If in business on your own account, your charge for work 
should be based upon $1.00 per hour, plus your overhead expense, 
which includes shop rent, light, heat, and fixed incidentals. 
Approximate this, and you can't go backward. 

This would resolve into the following scale, which is prac- 
tically universal : 

Average run of cards, plain in treatment — 

Full Sheet 75 cents 

Half Sheet 50 cents 

Quarter Sheet 25 cents 

Eighth Sheet 15 cents 

These prices are based upon quantity lots — i. e., upon the 
assumption that you are to receive a certain amount of work each 
week or month. 



36 SPIOW CARD WRITING 

You should quote the transient customer at least 25 per cent 
more. 

Double Full Sheets and Cut-Outs— 

(Air Brush design) $2.50 to $3.50 

Single Full Sheets and Cut-Outs— 

Fancy or Air Brush designs. $1.50 to $2.00 

Half Sheet Fancy $1.50 

Quarter Sheet Fancy 50 

Price Tickets 25c to $1.50 per doz. 

SEASONABLE DECORATIONS ON CARDS 

(Cards Synonymous of the Mouth) 

The expert card writer should make it his sj)ecial business 
to acquire a comprehensive understanding of seasonable decora- 
tion. Co-operate with the chief window trimmer, and get an 
advance knowledge of the predominating color in a contemplated 
"window trim"; it will do much toward eliminating the "jar- 
ring" effects ofttimes seen in the windows of the "best shops." 

A window trim can be a beautiful creation in itself, and the 
whole effect marred by introducing a "false note" in the shape 
of a card entirely at variance with the general scheme. The aim 
at all times should l^e harmonioiis, or if complementary color is 
introduced, have it quietly enter agreeably. The more svibtle it 
is, the more refined it becomes in feeling. 

For example, the "Window Trim" is one in which blue pre- 
dominates. The card or cards can be l)lue in monotone — i. e., deep 
blue ground, pale blue lettering, or pale Ijlue ground, deep blue 
lettering. This would l:»e in full harmony. If complement is 
desired, use different tones or tints of terra cotta or old gold. 
"The crime" would be a red card — a discord. It would take vol- 
umes of text to say all that could l)e said upon this one subject, 
so we deem it advisalde to pass the proldem on to the ambitiovis 
student, who will find much pleasure in analyzing this most inter- 
esting phase of Showcard Art; passing on to suggestions for sea- 
sonable decorations to cover calendar months. 

January 

In northern latitudes, January represents snow and ice and 
freezing temperatm'es. Color schemes for cards should be in cool 
combinations — blues and greens — simple and easily executed 
poster snow scenes (supplementing suitable panels) acting as 
general background. 

Winter amusements can be symbolized in posterized skates, 
snow shoes, sleigh bells, curling irons, etc. 



SEASONABLE DECORATIONS ON CARDS 37 

February 

is practically the same as January as to weather conditions. It 
also commemorates the birth of George Washington. Many sym- 
bols can be used, such as s^Yords, cross guns, first battle flag, 
national shields, Washington Hatchet, etc. 

March 

The month of wind and unsettled weather conditions, over- 
cast skies, and much rain. Color schemes should be in black and 
neutral grays. Poster landscapes can be used, preferably after- 
sunset effects, overcast sky with rift of bright afterglow upon 
horizon, swirl of dead leaves in foreground. 

Stormy petrels and gulls flying about, to further animate 
the scene. 

April 

April is conspicuous because it brings to mind the Resurrec- 
tion. Easter Lilies may predominate as decorative features. 

Chicks, bursted egg shells, etc., may be effectively used. 
Purple and White are Easter Colors. 

May 

May 30 brings Decoration Day, and is a national holiday. 
Flags, ijunting. wreaths and national emblems are suggested. 
Patriotic colors should be used— red, white and blue. 

June 

The month of roses and weddings. Roses should be the cen- 
tral or predominating feature on cards; artificial and "cut out" 
may be used. Tennis rackets, croquet balls, oars, college regalia, 
class pins, pennants, etc., are suggested as symbols. 

July 

Flags, bunting, cannon, firecrackers, rockets, shields, eagle, 
eagle's head, spread eagle — all symbolical of the Glorious Fourth. 
Red, white and blue for color. 

August 

Vacation month. Symbols: oars, canoe paddles, books, fishing 
tackle, hannnocks, fans. 



38 SHOW CARD WRITING 

September 

Beginning of autumn. Use bright color combinations, syn- 
onymous of change of season; posterized figures of children, 
school books, etc. 

October 

Use late fruit as symbols, grapes, apples, etc. Render in 
poster effects; squirrels and nuts are also apjoropriate. 

November 

Foot ball, college pennants, turkeys, cranberries, wild game, 
corn sheaves, are all synonymous of this month. Neutral grays 
and yellows for color. 

December 

Santa Claus occupies the center of the stage; needless to 
say, he is accompanied by holly and mistletoe. Go to extremes as 
to color and frost effects — nothing too elaborate for this great 
Annual Festival of all Christendom. 

PRICE TICKETS 

WTiere price tickets accompany a set of Display Cards, do not 
have them at variance with coloring and general scheme of the 
main cards. Treat tickets in same style and color scheme; have 
them all "one family," identifying them as a pleasing whole. 

AIR BRUSH (General Description) 

The AIR BRUSH is totally unlike any l)rush or pen, and in 
reality is not a brush, if truly named. It is a cleverly made little 
instrument that applies colors or inks to surfaces by means of 
compressed air or carlionic gas, and this little tool has been very 
aptly styled the Air Brush. 

The air forces the liquid out of the tool in a fine spray. By 
pressing a small lever or "trigger" on the air brush, it is possible 
to gauge and control this spray so that any effect can be produced, 
from a fine line to a gray or wide color value, rendering a great 
variety of color values, enal)liug one to "model" more cleverly 
than with any known "loose" medium, dry point, stomp, crayon 
sauce, and usual brushes. 

In Show Card work, the variety of color values are rendered 
(as previously suggested) by means of placing "cut-out" letters 
(called masks or stencils) upon the surface in desired position. 



PAYZANT PENS 39 

and then "playing" the air-brush spraj- over entire surface. 
When "mask" is removed, you will find a white silhouette. This, 
in turn, can be "rounded up" or modeled to give the appearance 
of "relief" from the background, by "playing" the spray upon 
the left-hand edge of vertical strokes, and the under edges of 
horizontal strokes. 

On ordinary cards it is customary to spray a black "shadow 
value" upon red or colored lettering placed upon white or tinted 
ground. This is the most popular quick air-brush route. 

Besides the Air Brush, it is necessary to have an air pump 
or gas tank (gas tank preferred), to give necessary pressure to 
the brush. 

The air compressor or tank should be placed at the left of 
your table and hung in its clamp against the wall. This position 
gives a good vantage point, making it easy to note the pressure 
by a quick glance at the "gauge" on the tank. A convenient 
hook should be provided near at hand, on which to hang the brush 
when not in actual use ; this should be on your left, and as near as 
possible, to be witliin easy reach. 

To produce fancy panels quickly, to be used as masks, and 
where the foxu* corners are to be alike, take a piece of light Manila 
paper or lead foil, fold it twice, bring all four corners together, 
sketch in the design, and cut away the outer edge of the super- 
fluous paper or foil; unfold, and a complete mask is the result. 

The same method can be applied to all borders and ornaments 
that "repeat" on corners, or where "sides" are to be uniform, 
fold but once, and sketch in one-half of design before "cutting 
away." 

PAYZANT PENS 

One of the most recently patented Card Writer's Pens is 
called the PAYZANT (free-hand) PEN, with an ink reservoir 
attached, made in various sizes. 

It is particularly adapted for free-hand stroke lettering, and 
for outlining large letters, that may be filled in with a brush. It 
is very easy to acquire the use of these pens, as the point is so 
constructed as to produce the same gauge of line, no matter in 
what direction the pen is moved. 

The reservoir holds enough ink to letter from one to two 
hundred words. 

For ruling borders, they have a capacity of from twenty-five 
to thirty feet. This pen was invented by S. Wallace Hess, noted 
Chicago card writer. 

The pen is so constructed that it will last a life-time. 



40 SHOW CARD WRITING 

Directions 

Fill the pen by a qnill or dropper, in the same manner that a 
rnline^ pen is tilled; never dip it into the ink. After tilling, adjust 
the nibs to the proper feeding distance, and test on scrap paper. 

If pen becomes clogged while in nse, open the nibs slightly 
and insert piece of paper. 

After nsing, remove set screw, open reservoir, and, clean 
thoroughly. 

Obtain this yion from puljlishers of this l)ook, Chicago, 111. 

THE AUTO MARKING PEN 

The Auto ^larking Pen with the Fountain ^Vttachnient is the 
most rapid implement for lettering made. One filling of the Foun- 
tain is sufficient for several homes' work with the ordinary sized 
l^ens. 

Get them from publishers of this l)ook, Chicago, 111. 

Soennecken's Parcels Pen 

Is A'ery similai' to the marking pen, except that it has four 
additional blades "atop" of the "lettering blade," and they act 
as an ink reservoir. Fill Avith a "dropper." 

Also obtainable from the publishers of this l)Ook. 

Keeping the Air Brush Clean 

If the brush "throws" an irregular spray, it is dirty, and this 
is caused by one of three things — either the color needs straining, 
or color has dried in the color passage, or the adjustment is not 
right. Any one of these would cause "spitting." Correct the 
fault, and if "tip" is not split, the trouble is easily overcome. If 
tip is split, get a ncAv one. 

If brush is double action, never let the trigger snap forward 
into the tip ; it will surely split it. 

Keep the brush clean; strain the color or ink used. Never 
take a brush apart unless absolutely necessary. If anything 
should get into the tip, use the reamer carefully; don't force it 
out. Placing the finger over end of brush and blowing tank air 
l)ack through the color tube will nearly always remove the 
obstruction. 

A strong solution of fSal Soda, used hot, is very fine for clean- 
ing out accinnulated color out of a brush; use i^lenty of clean 
water afterward. 



SHOW CARD PHRASES 41 

Card Writer's Idea "Hatchery" 

The card writer must of necessity be constantly on the alert 
for new ideas and idea material. 

Glancing over Newspapers, Magazines and Periodicals, 
**spot" and "clip" every drawing, design, etc., that appeals to 
you as being artistic. File it away so that it can be reached easily 
when wanted. 

Also do this with every good illustration or reproduction of 
card writing or sign painting that you fancy; then, when called 
upon to deliver "something different," you will have an abun- 
dance of reference to rely upon. 

Make a note and rough layout of every good card that you 
will notice in your ramifies; file these also. This will keep you 
posted as to what is "doing" in your local field, and make it pos- 
sible for you to "create" decided novelties. 

There is nothing new in design under the sun — merely modi- 
fications of Period Styles of the long ago. Abbreviations and 
individual expressions of standard styles have given us the "New 
Ai't" of the present time. 

Originality is merely another term and name for Versatility 
on the part of the individual. The so-called and self-styled artist, 
wdio passes contemporary art by with closed eyes, is at best a 
narrow-minded egotist, and unless he be a genius (which can 
hardly seem possible), his work will be rather mediocre. 

Don't be afraid to emulate and copy your fellow-craftsmen; 
it will broaden and. add much to your al)ility as a show card 
writer. Your individuality will be EVER PRESENT in your 
work, no matter who or what you emulate. 

Keep at least a dozen ordinary letter files for your "clip- 
pings." Label them under different classifications, such as Alpha- 
bets, Card Reproductions, Heads, Ornaments, Female Figures, 
Male Figures, Child's Heads, Children, Birds, Dogs, Horses, 
Marine Scenes, Winter Landscapes — Serious, Winter Landscapes 
• — Poster Style, Flowers, etc. These files Avill act as your "Idea 
Hatchery." You should begin to install it at once. 

SHOW CARD PHRASES 

A diamond — the gift of gifts for a woman. 
For Xmas— A GLOVE CERTIFICATE solves gift giving. 
Cravats, daintily lioxed for gift giving, gratis, $1.00. 
The sweetness of low price never equals the bitterness of poor 
quality. 

The memory of quality lasts long after the price is forgotten. 



42 SHOW CARD WRITING 

Don 't waste your money ; appreciate its full value by buying 
here. 

The wind of fashion has blown these straws into favor. 

A saving worth making. 

Short i^rices — Long values. 

Pretty Patterns at Petty Prices. 

Millinery that is a treat for the eyes. 

Distinctive styles at distinctive savings. 

Smart Followers of Fashion endorse these styles. 

Practical Silks for economical women. 

Small prices that bear a heavy burden of quality. 

June, the wedding month, finds us bm^dened. with just the 
right gifts. 

Things to wear, for men who care. 

Faultless in Fabric, Finish and Fit. 

Hang up a hammock — the season's in full swing. 

Wash Suits that the Tub can't dismay. 

Just a little different — just a shade the best. 

Here is cool gray comfort combined with style. 

What you buy — we stand by. 

On many stocks we've put a price that's sure to move them. 

Spring is the Mohair season — Blue is the Mohair color — This 
is the Mohair opportimity. 

We are earliest with the latest things. 

Moving pictures — low prices are moving them. 

For judges of Value — a glance will suffice. 

These prices keep people coming in and goods going out. 

Fashionable, but not too fancy. 

It's lace curtaui time for wise housekeepers. 

Here are veils — avail yourself. 

Pure foods economically priced. 

Satisfaction goes where these go. 

These will make the most exacting happy. 

The price is as low as true merit will allow. 

These are the fabrics for which fashion is making such urgent 
demands. 

Quality gained and money saved. 

Good to look at, and better to wear. 

We feature fashion's fairest fancies here. 

The quality is as sulistantial as the saving. 

Little things most necessary to the household. 

Now is the time — Here is the place — This is the price. 

You can safely buy them with your eyes closed at this price. 

As fashionable as they are seasonable — As serviceable as they 
are reasonable. 



SHOW CARD PHRASES 43 

Pretty pieces at persuasive prices. 
Sample trunks that waut to go traveling. 
Comfortable bedding for these chilly nights. 
The latest hatchings from fashion's incubator. 
Heavy walking gloves that are under marching orders. 
Throw them in the tub and wash them to yoiu- heart's content 
—you can't wash out the fact that this price is only half their 
value. 

Turkish bath toAvels that are thick and thii'sty. 
Whatever is needed for coolness and appearance is here in 
plenty. 

Ever.y seam, every plait, every hem, shows perfection of 
workmanship. 

Soaring quality — Falling prices. 
Rain rattles off these rain wraps. 
Fashion's favored fancies in furs. 
Here's a chance to save by spending. 
It will be our fault if you don't return. 
Doings beat promising. 
Come again and gain again. 
Bargains — not remnants. 
A trumpet call for bargain-seekers. 
A harvest of furniture fancies. 

After these are gone, no more— It's just changing money. 
Worthy silks — Worthy savings. 
Prices reduced to the laughing point. 
Prices of powerful popularity. 
Good news of good goods. 

A dull knife tries the temper— Here's the finest American 
table cutlery. 

Cut to insure comfort without asking your vanity to pay the 
penalty. 

Get a notion of the hunmiing notion sale— It's near the end. 

They look fine and well made — And Avill prove so in the Avear. 

Sucii a splash!— When these $2.10 Bathing Suits go to sea. 

Just an instance of what our china section is doing. 

Hammocks Fall— These have dropped from $6 to $4. 

If your pocket-book is your guide, walk in. 

Things you waut at prices you'll like. 

The price gives no hint of their real value. 

A happy blend of comfort and style. 

These prices rarely buy such qualities. 

As good as any — better than most. 

We have shaved the price on good razors. 

Comfortable but not clumsy. 



44 SHOW CARD WRITING 

Window sj)ace only a small display — Inside we show the full 
line. 

A profitable loss — Turning these into money. 

Prices that tell the tale — Qualities that make the sale. 

Summer cottons for Winter Tourists. 

The Tailoring and Fabrics are better than the price suggests. 

The more you like comfort, the more you will like these. 

A harvest festival of good things to cat. 

Stii'ring economies for good housewives. 

We give lessons in right buying. 

We do everything to sell our goods but misrepresent them. 

We originate — Others imitate. 

We are out-talked often — outdone never. 

We've been looking for you — Now listen. 

The key to wealth is right buying. 

The early buyer gets the choice. 

Quality costs, but it's the surest guarantee. 

Our clerks are here to assist — not to insist. 

Our patrons wear smiles. 

Made on honor — sold on merit. 

It takes nerve to sell at these prices. 

It takes sense to make dollars. 

We give lessons in right buying by examples in low selling. 

Don't worry about the fit — we attend to that. 

Don't let cigars get the best of you — Get the best of cigars. 

If you don't decide today, we can be found here tomorrow. 

Leave your thirst at this fountain — 5c. 

Now you get the pick — Later you get the remnants. 

Quality the true test of cheapness. 

Take your choice from this choice lot. 

Talking about Strikes — How does this strike you? 

To have been first proves antiquity — To have liecome first 
proves merit. 

We can make it warm for you if you need Idankets. 

We have Trimks that will laugh at any baggageman. 

We don't follow the leaders — We lead the followers. 

We're so far ahead that we're lonesome. 

Shoes 

WE SELL SHOES— NOT OUR CUSTO:\IERS— NEW 
SHOES SOLD— OLD SHOES RE-SOLED. 

SHOES as you like them for less than you usually pay. 
SHOES that are on TIP-TOE to get out of the store. 
It's time to step into Spring Shoes. 
A shoe with everv mark of correct stvle. 



SHOW CAED PHRASES 45 

It's Oxford Time. Let our Slioeiiian take care of your feet. 

No trouljle to show shoes — No shoes to show trouble. 

A Paradise of rest for Weary feet. 

The man of taste never allows his taste to fall short of his 
shoes. 

That Boy will tind his match in our School Shoes. 

The kick of the boy and the skip of the girl are provided for 
in our School Shoes. 

Our Storm Slippers Reign Supreme Wherever It Rains. 

Springy Shoes for Spring and Summer. 

Common Sense Heels, Extension Soles and Goodyear Welt. 

Calf Lined soled to the heel. 

Be sure of your footing, then go ahead. 

A SHOE "That Fits the Foot and Feasts the Eye." 

An Easy Shoe with an Easy Price. 

It's no feat for us to tit feet. 

If the Tongues in these Shoes could speak, they'd say, 
"Mighty Good!" 

Not only good Shoes for perfect Feet, but Perfect Shoes for 
all Feet. 

Low Shoes at Low Prices. 

For your feet's sake, lend us your ears. 

Fit Well, Feel Well, Look Well, Well Worth the Price, Well 
Made. 

Easy Shoes for tender feet— Ease and Comfort Combined — 
Comfort for the Feet, Easy for the Purse— $2.00. 

Men's Clothing and Furnishings 

Collars that fit the Season, the Shirt, the Fashion and the 
Pocket-Book. 

They can "tie" our Cravats, but can't beat them at this price. 

Socks ^^■ith Clocks right up to the minute. 

Worn particularly by Particular Men. 

In Vests We have just the Vests You'll invest in. 

Are you troubled with "Holey" Socks'? These are ^^Hiolly 
Good. 

Our Store is the Capitol of "Scarfdom." 

The man in search of a touch of Newness will find it in this 
Store. 

An Ounce of Good Underwear is worth a Pound of :\Iedicine. 

An Underselling Sale of Summer Underwear. 

Fine Furnishings for Fastidious Fellows. 

Medium and Heavy Weights— Soft, Fleecy Garments. 

Sightly! Worn Nightly, Made Sightly, Priced Slightly. 



46 SHOW CARD WRITING 

Ladies' Wear 

Favorite Dress Materials for Summer End-of-Season Prices. 

Tlie Miss who wants wliite will be well pleased with our 
assortment. 

For the Girl who wants to he Prettier. Here are Suits to take 
you "Out of the Crowd." 

Stylish Ship Shape Sailor Suits. 

AVomeu's New Autumn Suits to put right on and l)e com- 
fortable. 

Waists that have the secret of good simplicity and good taste. 

Tailorish Silk Shirt- Waist Suits. 

A Whirlwind of Bargains in Dress Goods this Aveek. 

Exquisitely Tailored Suits. 

No lady's wardrobe complete witliout these Dainty Rustling 
Garments. 

Noisy Silks at Quiet Prices. 

There is Superior Grace and Character in all of our Tailor- 
Made Suits. 

Men's Hats 

Here's a "Straw" without a Flaw. 

Stylisli Straws — Sensil)le Sha])es — Smart Styles. 

Soft Hat Comfort for Hard-Ileaded Men, who appreciate 
Style, Quality and Good Values. 

Here is the Hat you had in mind. 

No Headaches in these Hats. 

Crown Yourself with the Season's Latest "Lid." 

A Bewildering Assortment of "Crowns" for His Majesty 
"The American Citizen." 

'old hon, 'ere his your 'at. Hat the Right Price. 

Boys' Clothing 

Suit your Boy, Yourself, Your Pocket Book with Norfolk 
Suit. 

Clothes to Please the Lads — Prices to Please the DADS. 

Clothing is Cheaper for a healthy boy than Doctor's Bills 
for a Sick One. 

He'll Never play "Hooky" if you dress him like a Gentleman. 

Nothing too Good for YOUR BOY. 

Men's Clothing 

Mannish Modes for Little Men. 

Pay $13.98 for one of these Suits and congratulate Yourself. 



SHOW CARD PHRASES 47 

Next to your ability conies your appearance — These Suits 
Make you Loolv Smart. 

"Costly thy Raiment as Thy Purse will Permit" note the 
Price. 

Our "Duds" are as Good as they Look. 

Zero weather is coming! Get into a Heavy Overcoat at a 
Light Price. 

Comfort for Hot Weather — Prices just as light as the Goods. 

Good Clothes are Tools of Advancement. 

Help out the Old Coat and Vest with a New Pair of Trousers. 

High and Low Trousers — High in Quality, Low in Price. 

Real "Eye Arresters" — These Nol)by Suits at attention com- 
pelling Prices. 

Odds and Ends 

Everlasting scents for 50 cents. 

Long Life Hair Brushes. 

SOAPS OP SENSE AND SCENTS FOR SEVEN CENTS. 

A CUT IN SHEETS. 

NOT HARDWARE BUT UNDERWEAR THAT WILL 
STAND HARD WEAR. 

"A WORD TO THE WIVES IS SUFFICIENT"— These 
Willow Plumes will move rapidly at this Price. 

"Tub Ties" that will take the Tub Test. 

Form Tracing Spring Raiment $15. to $40. 

The foregoing have been added to this work to aid you in 
m.aking up "copy" when called upon to do so by your customer 
who at times will be at loss to know off hand just what he wants 
in the way of inscription. The phrases are mostly "Jingles" 
and are fairly representative as they are mostly "pick ups,"- — and 
the number is sufficiently large so that you can cover most any 
line. 

Be on the lookoiit at all times for catchy phrases, good catch 
lines, display heads, etc. 



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No. 1— Is a Avhite card, red display letter, Ijlack subordiuate 
letter, embossed "cut out" tloral. 




No. 2— Wall paper "cut out" floral— on white card, 

panel effect pale green air brush— lettering in 

red. Air brush gray shadow. 




No. 3— Main Card white— panel, wall paper mount, 

imitation leather. Blue letter, white outline 

and ornament. Black letter on main card. 




No, 4— White card — white letter, purple shadow and blended 
ground air brush. Rendered "cut out" floral. 




No. 5 — Wall paper mount — white letter, air brush shade iu 
pale green, black outline. 




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No. 6— White Card— panel ''cut out" created— iu imita- 
tioB bronze color — accented in gold bronze. "Red 
Caps" black letter on display, remainder of lettering 
black. 




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No. 7 — White Card — fashion figure "cut out." Red 

panel — white letter — modeled on shade 

side — air brush gray. 




No. 8 — White (Jarcl— red letter, Easter Lilies in white "air 

Ijrushed" in pale green, circle in pale 3'ellow 

tint. Matt line — pale yellow. 




No. 9 — AVhite Card — wreath is a bronze "cut out' 
brushed pink blend from base of wreath, — all 
black letter. 



air 




No. 10 — Russet Ingrain panel mounts on 
white, Price in red, "Suits" red, orna- 
ment red, white ornament on suit 
panel, letter ou triangle in white. 




No. 11— \Yliite Card— pauel iiicdiuiu purple, oruameut in lavender 

tint. 




No. 12 — White Card — black lettering, gvay ornament. 




No. 13— Mediiuii ( iray Card — white matt Hue, air brushed 

shadow, value upon "line" and lettering — 

lettering white. 




No. 14 — White (Jard — panel aii' brushed outline, in blue. 




No. 15 — Dark Green Card — old gold ornament, 

or bronze, letter ]3ale bnff tint, red 

ontline and accent. 




No, 16 — Dark Green Card — red letter, pale buff 

outline on "Furs," gold bronze lining 

top and bottom. 









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No. 17 — White Card — white panel — 
pink and pale green A'alues air 
brnshed, violets rendered l)y hand — 
all black letter. 




No, 18 — White Card air l)riished in 
Sepia tone white panel — black 
letter. 




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No. 19 — White Card — air brushed pic- 
torial in lihie, grays — warm green. 
Lettering in Ijhick. 







No. 20— Olive Green ]\[att Board— hand painted 

floral, white lettering and ornament, 

gold bronze, matt line. 




out oiKumg. —Chicks are mounted toy Chicks. 







No. 24 — White Card — cut out open, lattice at upper left 
hand corner — artificial flower entwined in lattice — 
Russet panel, mounted, and ornamented in white, gray 
tint back panel — black letter. 




No. 25 — "White Card — panel suggested 
with air hrush blend of pale green — 
pink ornament, red display lettering 
— black snb. letter. 




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No. 26 — White Card — black letter, gray ornament. 




No. 27 — White Card — air brushed white panel in gray — on air brushed pale 

green, hand painted floral. 




No. 28 — Eiiiboissc'd "cut out" on browu card, 
^Yllite liuc. 




No. 29 — l^i'dwu Card — white border — "cut 
out" wall paper fruit. 




No. 30 — AVhite Card — white panel air l)ruslied in 
pale green and gray — floral hand painted. 




No. 31 — Mottled Russet Wall Paper 
mouut — white ornament. 




No. 32 — White Card — Avreatli pale green, 
ornameut in flesh tint — accented — ■ 
with deeper terra eotta tint — ^pale yel- 
low tint — purple and red. 




No. 33 — Hand paiuted — in color combination of your own 
selection. 




No. 34 — Moonlio'ht marine in two values of bine 

and green — air l)rnshed — on white card 

— pale green ornament. 




No. 35 — Air brushed pale green 
tint — center of triangular 
panel, Sepia or "Ashes of 
Roses" hand painted floral. 




No. 36— White Card— white oval- 
blended ground of pale green 
and d^dl purple tint hand 
painted "lilacs." 




No. 37 — Decorative design — New 
panel, iu purple and old gold, 
white ground. 



Art 




No. 38 — White ground — blue air brush value forniiug oval — oval 

white — fashion figure "cut out." Ornament — in 

two tints of pale blue. 




No. 29— Air brush design— white card— white panel, pink 
air brush tint surrounding panel. 




No. 40 — ^Medium ( ira>- Card — L'ietorial "Se- 
pia Print" — "air brush" background 
using leaves for ' ' maslvs. ' ' Sienna orna- 
ment, gold accents. 




No. 41 — Air bruslicd iu pale green and gray, 




No. 43— Serious ''cut out" modeled in grays entirely 
air brushed. 




No. 44— Little design over "iiiasi-: 



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No. 45— Little design sprayed in o]K'ning of pattern 
after mask was ent — showing how l)oth "mask" 
and "wasted" opening of paper can be utilized 
in creating two designs. 




No. 46 — Showino- what may be accomplished Avithout a mask — this letter was 
"laved out" accm-ately — and straight loose "slip masks" four in number, 
each "composite value" rendered by blocking it or fencing in and the method 
repeated until the entire letter was completed. 




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No. 53— Yellow nioiuit ou white card lettered iu bine— aii- 
brush shadow in gray. 




No. 54 — Imitation Burlap mount on white card, white 

letter and border stripe, air brush shade 

on the price. 




No. 55— Blue "oat meal" wall paper mount on white— white 

letter. 




No. 57 — Yellow Onyx AVall Pai)(>v mount, 
bevel border air brushed in pale green. 




No. 58— Red "oat 



meal"— white letter, white 
brush 50e. 



border, air 




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No. 61— "Oak" Wall Paper mount — on white, white letter 
and ornament. 







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No. 64— White Card— air bruslied iu purple. 








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No. 67 — White — air l)rushed in purple. 




No. 68— Ornate design — in neutral grays — all air brush. 




No. 69 — Air brush panel in grays ou wliite. 




No. 70 — Warm dark olive — ground — floral, cm- 
bossed wall paper "cut out," also top edge 
cut out forming silhouette, — very fine — 
accent and matt line in gold bronze. 




No. 71— Dark Gray Card— "cut out head,' 

white gloss card mounted from 

or on back. 




No. 72— Ditto as per No. 70. 




No. 73— Ditto as per 71 aud 72— thin green 
"oat meal" wall paper mounted on back 
hand painted flowers in pink values. 




No. 74— Mcdiiini gray "cut out," mottled buff wall 
paper, "back niouut," $2. Red, with black 
outline and accent. Any Hat, in white, red 
"poster spot." 




No. 75— Dull Tan Mottled Card 
— panel "cut out" and white 
back mount, floral in ]jurples, 
hand painted, Avhite, letter on 
main card, black ornament, 
l)lack letter on the white panel 
top edge "silhouette cut." 




No. 76 — Medium green "cut out." white panel mounted 
from back, blacl^; letter, hand painted floral. 




No. 77— Dark green card, celluloid "l)acked'" cirele panel, "cut out 
"fashion figure" white letter, black ornament. 




No. 78 — Dark ^reen card, "cut out" panels white 
niouuted on back — black poster effect on main 
card — $15, Red — rest of lettering black, hand 
painted floral in pink values. 




No. 79 — Medium brown card, "Cellu- 
loid panel" "cut out" fashion 
figure, white ornament. 




No. 80 — Eml)ossed Litho "cut 
out," on Avhite card. 




No. 81 — "Cut out" heavy einl)ossed fruit, mounted on brown card- 
white line. 




Nos. 82, 83 and 84 — Are imported emljossed designs— on 
white, can be air brushed agreeably in pale colors. 




No. 83— See Xo. 82. 



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No. 84— See No. 82. 





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No. 85 — Special Cellu- 
loid "projectors" for 
side of show window. 



No. 86 — Lettering on 

the celluloid in 

blue. 




No. 87— Full Card— Easter design— air brushed in pale green and purple. 




No. 88 — Fruit entirely air brushed 
green and purple on white card. 




No. 89 — Wliitf Card — Lilies, air brushed in ])ale .screen, New Art vase in terra 
cotta, letter in red, air brush shade in gray, red line. 




No. 90 — Combination hand and air In'ush decoration, figure in black, — white 
panel, blend of pale o-reen from l)ottom, pale g-reen border on panel also for 
ornament, — fill openings in ornament, pale pnrple, blend of background 
from deep to lemon yellow, — tabourette in black. 




No. 91 — Marble effect air brushed in Sepia tones, Floral festoon, embossed "cut 

out," ^Yhite ornament and border, air brush Sepia 

shadow on the festoon. 





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No. 92. — AVhitc, aii* brushed in Sepia. 



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No. 93— Embossed "Floral Cut" and lattice, Grape Vine air brush in Sepia on 

white. 



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No 94-Air brushed "rustic" letter in greeu tones-Conveiitioiial trees m green, 
air brushed in gray— blossoms m pmk. 




No. 95— Air Brush Pauel ou white, iii pale green. 




No. 96 — Eml3ossecl Pictorial mounted,- — air brush design in Sepia tones. 




No. 97 — Ail- Brushed Vase in .2,Tay aud pale green- 
flowers ou \\iiite ground. 



-artificial 




No. 98— Lilliputian Stage Setting— air brush the drapery in purple, cut out the 
opeuiug, and separate the "Back" or panel card with ordinary bottle corks — 
which will give an effect of depth to the creation. Use regular Ijall fringe 
on the drapery. 




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No 100— Frame is of 8-plv white hoard, "cut out" wall paper floral mounted trom 

■ iiack— to top of framV. IVIain card is heiit in flat semi-circle or concave to back 

of "frame." Frame is air hrush blend in purple and green— pale tints— wliite 

ornament on frame, letter on frame in oold bronze. Main card is blend ot red 

to lemon yellow— letter in gold In'onze, shade letter m white. 




No 101— Eo-o- shaped silhouettL— c-ut out and air Innished m piirple — opeinng iii 
' center ref't clear —head is Litho "cut out" floral decoration in pur])le values, 
hand painted. This creation is to be suspended on invisilile fine wires and in- 
tended to form the central or "feature" of an Easter Millmery A^ mdow. 




No. 102 — Mottled Russet Wall Paper 
mounted on white, curled naturally 
at upper left hand corner, — blend the 
"turn" in pink and green — ornament 
in white. 




No. 103 — Comer piece — cut out — air brushed — hand painted 
bouquet. 




No. 104 — Side ami piece, air brushed- 
liand paiuted "posies." 









No. 105 — White letter on gray. 



OPENING 



No. 106 — White ou dark green, air bruslied in light green. 




No. 107 — Brown matt, white letter. 










o 





No. 110 — Cut out lu'ads ou dark green- 
white line. 




No. Ill — Air brush price ticket. 




No. 112— xVir brush price ticket. No. 113 — Various forms and sliapes of price 

tickets. 




No. 114 — Larger sizes of price ticlvets. 



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Price 1 

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No. 115 — Aud some more price cards. 




No. 116 — Artistic ])lioto mounts for 
price tickets. 




No. 117 — More photo mounts. 




No. 118— "Stock" air lirusli tickets. (Merchant'^ 

Supply House, 59 E. Van Buren St 

Chicago, 111.) 




No. 119 — "Stock" air brush tickets. (Merchants Supply House, 59 E. Vau Bureu 

St., Chicago, III) 




No. 120— Iiiiitatiou Wood Papers. (25 in. x 34 in. only, Henrv Bosch Co., 

Chicago, 111.) 




No. 121 — Onyx Marble Papers. (25 in. x 34 in. only, Hem\y Bosch Co., Chicago, 

Illinois.) 



"S-g 





INDEX 

A Page 

Air Brush (general description of) 38-40 

How to keep clean 40 

Alphabets — Descriptions of 19-23 

Antique Roman 20-22 

Bradley Text 21 

Card /. 19-20 

Egyptian 20-23 

Finished Styles 22-23 

Heavy Script 22 

Italic Script 22 

Lower Case Lettering 20-21 

Modern Full Block 21 

Modern Italic 20-21 

Old English 22 

Speed 20 

Tuscan Block 22 

Ali:)habets (illustrations of) Figs. 6-43 

Antique Light Face Roman Fig. 11 

Automatic Pen Script Fig. 38 

Automatic Old English Fig. 40 

Bradley Text Fig. 39 

Card Writers' Plymouth Fig. 22 

Classic Stroke Fig. 33 

Detroit Stroke Fig. 30 

Engrossing — Single Stroke Fig. 15 

Engrossing Text Fig. 16 

Egyptian — Upper Case Fig. 27 

Heavy Face Egyptian Fig. 13 

Heavy Foster Block Fig. 35 

Heavy Sign Script Fig. 34 

Italic Script Fig. 12 

Light Face Spur Egyptian Fig. 18 

Marking Pen Roman Figs. 36-37 

Modern Single Stroke Block Fig. 25 

Old Classic Roman Fig. 28 



INDEX 

Page 

Old English Fig. 14 

Olson Bradley Fig. 19 

Ornamental Creations Fig. 43 

Payzant Pen Stroke Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 

Pen Stroke Roman Pig. 41 

Plain Egyptian — Lower Case Fig. 29 

Plain Pen Stroke Fig. 20 

Plain Rapid Single Stroke Bloek Fig. 26 

Price Ticket Nnmerals Fig. 42 

Rapid Single Stroke Tuscan Fig. 23 

Sign Painters' Script Figs. 31-32 

Spike Spur Roman Fig. 21 

Strong's Italic Fig. 24 

Tuscan Full Block Fig. 17 

Art of Lettering ! .23-27 

Composition 23-24 

Letter Strokes 25 

Major Fifth 26-27 

Minor Fifth 26-27 

Shading 24-25 

Single Stroke 25 

Spacing 25-26 

Atomizers 12-13 

Auto-Marking Pen 40 

Automatic Brush 31 

B 

Blended Grounds 16 

Borders 33 

Bridge or Arm Rest 5 

Bronze Powders 13-14 

Brilliant 14 

Lettering 14 

Striping 14 

Brush Practice 2-3 

Brushes — Show Card 5-6 

Care of 6 

C 

Card Board 10 

Card Creations — Numljers 1 to 121 

Card Synonyms of the IMonth 36-38 

April .' 37 

August 37 

December 38 



INDEX 

Page 

February 37 

January 36 

June 37 

July 37 

May 37 

March 37 

November 38 

October 38 

September 38 

Card Writers' Idea "Hatchery" 41 

CeUuloid 15 

Colors — Dry 8 

Water — Adhesive for 8-9 

Color Combinations 27 

Cold Color 27 

Strong Contrasts 27 

Tri-color Neutral 27 

Water Color 27 

Color Schemes 32-33 

Special for Fancy Cards 33 

Correcting Errors 18 

On Tinted Cards 18 

On Wliite Cards 18 

Relettering 18 

Cut-outs 15 

D 

Diamond Dust 15 

E 

Elementary Color Mixing 28 

Instructions for 28-30 

F 

Fancy Initials or Capitals 34-35 

Flitters, or Metallies 14 

Flowers — Artificial H 

Flowers — Cutout 15 

Fountain Air Brush 11-12 

Paper Masks for 12 

Stencils for. . 12 

G 

Gum-Arabic ^ 



INDEX 

L Page 

Layout 17 

La^ying Out luscriptious 17-18 

Lt'tteriug 10 

M 

Margins 32 

Materials 1-2 

Matt Board 10-11 

N 

Numerals 23 



Ornament, Borders and Scrolls 17 

Overpowering Designs 17 

P 

Payzant Pens 39-10 

Pen Work 6-7 

Strokes of 7 

Pens 6-8 

Marking 7-8 

Ruling 7 

Shading 8 

Soenneckeu 7 

Stub 6 

Phrases for Show Cards 41-47 

Boys' Clothing 46 

Cutting Prices 43 

Gift Giving 41 

Ladies' Wear 46 

Men's Clothing and Furnishings 45, 46, 47 

Men's Hats . /. 46 

Odds and Ends 47 

Prices and Styles 41-42 

Quality of Goods 42-43 

Shoes " 44-45 

When to Buy 44 

Plain Cards " 31-32 

Plastics for Air Pencil 13 

Position of Work 5 

Practice Work 30-32 

Circles 31 

Lines Without Straight Edge 31 



INDEX 

Page 

Price Tickets 38 

Prices for Cards 35-36 

R 

Raised Ornaments 13 

Raised Panels 15-16 

Removing Pencil Marks, and Dirt 19 

Reversing Ornament 34 

Corner Pieces and Scroll Panels 3-4 

Ribbons 34 

Rococo Scroll 34 

S 

Scrolls and Borders 33 

Show Cards 33 

Show Card Ink 9 

White Covering for 9 

White Monogram Flake 10 

Show Card Writing 1 

Colors Suitable for 8 

Single Stroke Method 3-5 

Soap Lettering on Mirrors 16-17 

Soennecken's Parcels Pen 40 

Spatter Work 16 

Stroke — Boldness of 5 

W 

Wall Papers 15-16 

Enamel 15 

Imitation Wood and Marble 15 



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